Environment is derived from the French word Environner which means to encircle or surround. All the biological and non-biological things surrounding an organism are thus included in environment.
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Thus environment is sum total of water, air and land, inter-relationships among themselves and also with the human beings, other living organisms and property. The above statement clearly indicates that environment includes all the physical and biological surroundings and their interactions. Thus, in order to study environment one needs knowledge inputs from various disciplines.
Below is the list of few questions related to Environmental Science which can be asked in many competitive exams such as UPSC, SSC etc.
- What is the need for studying environmental issues ?
- What is the scope of environmental education ?
- How would environmental awareness help to protect our environment ?
- What are renewable and non-renewable resources ? Give examples.
- Discuss the major uses of forests. How would you justify that ecological uses of forests surpass commercial uses ?
- What are the major causes and consequences of deforestation ?
- Discuss with the help of a case study, how big dams have affected forests and the tribals.
- What is an aquifer ? Discuss its types.
- What are the environmental impacts of ground water usage ?
- Briefly discuss droughts and floods with respect is their occurrence and impacts.
- What are the major causes for conflicts over water ? Discuss one international and one inter-state water conflict.
- Should we build big dams ? Give arguments in favour of your answer.
- What are the uses of various types of minerals ?
- Discuss the major environmental impacts of mineral extraction.
- What is overgrazing ? How does it contribute to environmental degradation ?
- What do your mean by
(b) super pest
(c) shifting cultivation
(d) water logging
- Give a brief account of non-renewable energy resources.
- Define ecology and ecosystems.
- What are the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem ?
- What are food chains and food webs ? Give examples and discuss their significance.
- What are ecological pyramids ? Explain why some of these pyramids are upright while others are inverted in different ecosystems.
- Discuss the models of energy flow in an ecosystem.
- What are biogeochemical cycles ? Explain with the help of a diagram the nitrogen cycle.
- Define primary production and secondary production. Why are tropical wet forests and estuaries most productive ?
- What is homeostasis ? What are feedback mechanisms ?
- Discuss the process of ecological succession.
- Write short notes on
(a) tropical rain forests
(c) Arctic Tundra.
- What are the different zones in a lake ecosystem ?
- What do you mean by the following :
(b) Oligotrophic Lakes
(c) Meromictic Lakes.
- Discuss the major features of a stream (river) that differ from that of a lake.
- Discuss zonation in an ocean. What role is played by oceans in terms of providing resources and regulating climate ?
- Discuss the salient features of an estuarine ecosystem.
- Define biodiversity. Explain genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity.
- What do your mean by consumptive use value, productive use value, social value, ethical value and option value of biodiversity ?
- What is meant by alpha, beta and gamma richness ? Discuss, giving examples.
- Comment upon Indian biodiversity with special reference as a megadiversity nation.
- Define pollution. Name various atmospheric pollutants.
- What are the natural and man made pollutants that cause air pollution.
- Give an account of indoor air pollution.
- Give an account of the adverse effects of air pollution.
- Enumerate various methods for control of air pollution.
- Differentiate between
(i) Sound and noise
(ii) Loudness and pitch of noise
(iii) Threshold of pain and threshold of hearing for a human ear.
- Briefly describe the sources, effects and control of noise pollution.
- Give an account of noise generated during Diwali. What would you suggest to reduce this menace ?
- Enumerate with examples the major sources of surface water pollution and ground water pollution.
- Write short notes on
(a) Minamata disease
(c) Itai-itai disease
(d) Blue baby syndrome
- Discuss adverse effects and control of water pollution.
- What do you understand by the term thermal pollution ? Discuss various effects and control measures of thermal pollution.
- Discuss various sources of marine pollution. How can you prevent pollution of our oceans ?
- What are the major sources of soil pollution ? How does soil pollution affect soil productivity ? What measures can be taken to prevent soil pollution.
- Define radioactivity. Mention the sources of radioactivity.
- What type of the damage ionization radiations can cause ?
- Classify solid waste. What are the sources of urban and industrial solid wastes ?
- What adverse effects can solid wastes cause ? How can the solid waste be managed ?
- How can you, as an individual, prevent environmental pollution ? Why such an effort at individual level is important ?
- Write short notes on :
(a) Donora air pollution episode
(b) Bhopal gas tragedy
(c) Love canal tragedy
(d) Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
- Why do earthquakes occur ? Explain the case of any earthquake that occurred in India.
- Write notes on.
- What do you mean by sustainable development ? What are the major measures to attain sustainability ?
- Why is urban requirement of energy more than rural requirement ?
- Discuss the measures to conserve water.
- What is rainwater harvesting ? What are the purposes served by it ?
- What is a watershed ? Critically discuss the objectives and practices of watershed management.
- What do we mean by environment refugees? What are the major causes for displacement of native tribal people ? Discuss in the light of some case studies.
- What are the major issues and problems related to rehabilitation of the displaced tribals ? Discuss in the light of some case study.
- Critically discuss the anthropocentric and eccentric world view. Which world view appeals to you more and why ?
- What are greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect ? Discuss the potential and contribution of these gases to global warming phenomenon.
- What are the major implications of enhanced global warming ?
- What is meant by acid rain ? How does it form ? In which regions of India acid rain has been recorded ?
- What are the major impacts of acid rain and how can we control it ?
- Discuss the natural formation and occurrence of ozone in the stratosphere.
- Which are the agents responsible for ozone depletion ?
- Write a critical note on Nuclear holocaust.
- Discuss various measures for wasteland reclamation.
- Population, consumerism and waste production are interrelated to Comment.
- Discuss the salient features of
(a) Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
(b) Forest (Conservation Act), 1980.
- How do you define pollution as per Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 ? What are the salient features of the Act ?
- Who has the authority to declare an area as ìair pollution control area in a state under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 ? When was noise inserted in this act ?
- Why do we refer to Environmental Protection Act, 1986 as an Umbrella Act. Discuss the Major Environmental Protection Rules, 1986.
- What are the major limitations to successful implementation of our environmental legislation ?
- What are the different methods to propagate environmental awareness in the society ?
- What do you mean by
(a) Doubling time
(b) Total fertility rate
(c) Zero population growth
(d) Life expectancy.
- How can age-structure pyramids serve as useful tools for predicting population growth trends of a nation ? Explain with examples.
- What is meant by Population Explosion ? Discuss the Indian scenario.
- What is meant by population stabilization ? Discuss the family welfare and family planning program in Indian context.