Environmental studies as a subject has a wide scope. It encompasses a large number of areas and aspects, which may be summarized as follows
- Natural resources — their conservation and management
- Ecology and biodiversity
- Environmental pollution and control
- Social issues in relation to development and environment
- Human population and environment
These are the basic aspects of environmental studies which have a direct relevance to every section of the society. Environmental studies can also be highly specialized concentrating on more technical aspects like environmental science, environmental engineering or environmental management.
- Global Warming and Environmental Pollution One Liner Questions
- Global Warming and Environmental Pollution Related MCQ with Answers
- 200+ Important Questions Related To Environmental Science
- 200 Environment Related Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
- Important Terms Related to Environment and Ecology
In the recent years, the scope of environmental studies has expanded dramatically the world over. Several career options have emerged in this field that are broadly categorized as:
1. Research & Development (R & D) in environment:
Skilled environmental scientists have an important role to play in examining various environmental problems in a scientific manner and carry out R& D activities for developing cleaner technologies and promoting sustainable development.
There is a need for trained manpower at every level to deal with environmental issues. Environmental management and environmental engineering are emerging as new career opportunities for environmental protection and management. With the pollution control laws becoming more stringent, industries are finding it difficult to dispose off the wastes produced.
In order to avoid expensive litigation, companies are now trying to adopt green technologies, which would reduce pollution. Investing in pollution control technologies will reduce pollution as well as cut on costs for effluent treatment. Market for pollution control technology is increasing the world over. Cleaning up of the wastes produced is another potential market. It is estimated to be more than $100 billion per year for all American business. Germany and Japan having more stringent laws for many years have gained more experience in reducing effluents. Still there is a $ 200 billion market for cleaning up the former East Germany alone.
In India also the Pollution Control Boards are seriously implementing pollution control laws and insisting on upgradation of effluents to meet the prescribed standards before they are discharged on land or into a water body. Many companies not complying with the orders have been closed or ordered to shift.
2. Green advocacy:
With increasing emphasis on implementing various Acts and laws related to environment, need for environmental lawyers has emerged, who should be able to plead the cases related to water and air pollution forest, wildlife etc.
3. Green marketing:
While ensuring the quality of products with ISO mark, now there is an increasing emphasis on marketing goods that are environment friendly. Such products have ecomark or ISO 14000 certification. Environmental auditors and environmental managers would be in great demand in the coming years.
4. Green media:
Environmental awareness can be spread amongst masses through mass media like television, radio, newspaper, magazines, hoardings, advertisements etc. for which environmentally educated persons are required.
5. Environment consultancy:
Many non- government organizations (NGOs), industries and government bodies are engaging environmental consultants for systematically studying and tackling environment related problems.