300+ Essential Vocabulary Words for Success in IELTS, TOEIC, and TOEFL

Vocabulary Words IELTS TOEIC TOEFL Eduhyme

As international proficiency exams, the IELTS (International English Language Testing System), TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication), and TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) serve as crucial benchmarks for non-native English speakers aiming to study, work, or live in English-speaking countries.

Achieving a high score on these exams requires not only strong grammar and comprehension skills but also a robust vocabulary arsenal. In this article, we’ll explore important words that can significantly enhance your performance in these exams.

1. Aberration

Is a state or condition markedly different from the norm; unusual, or unexpected.

2. Abhor

To regard with horror or detestation; to shrink back with shuddering from; to feel excessive repugnance toward; to detest to extremity.

3. Abnegation

The denial and rejection of a doctrine or belief; the act of not allowing yourself to have something, especially something you like or want.

4. Abscond

Leave hurriedly and secretly; run away.

5. Abstruse

Difficult to understand, especially when you think it could be explained more simply.

6. Acquiesce

Means to accept something reluctantly but without protest; agree or express agreement.

7. Acrimonious

Marked by strong resentment or cynicism; someone or something is bitter or harsh in manner or speech, or rubs a person the wrong way.

8. Adage

Is a short, pointed, and memorable saying, which is considered a veritable truth by the majority of people; a traditional saying expressing a common experience or observation.

9. Adjure

Means to command solemnly; ask for or request earnestly; to order someone to do something.

10. Adroit

Having or showing skill, cleverness, or resourcefulness in handling situations.

11. Adulation

Means high praise or admiration; intense adoration.

12. Adulterate

Means to make (something) impure or weaker by adding something of inferior quality; to make a substance less pure by adding something else to it.

13. Adumbrate

To describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of.

14. Adversity

Means misfortune, an unfavorable turn of events; a difficult or unlucky situation.

15. Affectation

A deliberate pretense or exaggerated display; something that is not part of your personality but that you do to impress people.

16. Aggregate

Is a whole formed by combining several elements. To aggregate is to add together.

17. Akrasia

Is a state of mind in which someone acts against their better judgment through the “weakness of will.”

18. Alacrity

Brisk and cheerful readiness; quickly and with enthusiasm.

19. Algorithm

Is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions.

20. Allegory

Is a story or picture with a hidden meaning. The characters in allegories are symbols which represent particular ideas.

21. Alleviate

Means to make something easier to deal with or endure; to make something bad less severe.

22. Allusion

Is a figure of speech that makes a reference to a place, person, or event. This can be real or imaginary and may refer to anything, including fiction, folklore, historical events, or religious manuscripts (for example: When she lost her job, she acted like a Scrooge, and refused to buy anything that wasn’t necessary).

23. Amalgamate

To bring together, unite; to combine different things to create something new.

24. Ambiguous

Means unclear or vague in meaning; having more than one possible meaning.

25. Ambivalence

Is a state of having simultaneous conflicting reactions, beliefs, or feelings towards some object. Stated another way, ambivalence is the experience of having an attitude towards someone or something that contains both positive and negative components. The term also refers to situations where “mixed feelings” of a more general sort are experienced, or where a person experiences uncertainty or indecisiveness.

26. Amend

Means to make minor changes to the text (piece of legislation, etc.) in order to make it more fair or accurate, or to reflect changing circumstances.

27. Amicable

Means friendly, agreeable; characterized by or showing goodwill, peaceable.

28. Anachronistic

Out-of-date, not attributed to the correct historical period.

29. Anagram

Is a word or phrase made by transposing the letters of another word or phrase. In other words, any phrase or word that exactly reproduces the letters in another order is an anagram. For example, the word secure is an anagram of rescue; angel is an anagram of glean; state is an anagram of taste, etc.

30. Anew

Once more; again; in a new, typically more positive, way.

31. Annihilation

Means a reaction of the transformation of particles and antiparticles when they collide into any other particles that are different from the original. For example, when an electron collides with e- and positron e +, they disappear, turning into photons.

32. Annulment

An official or legal cancellation.

33. Apathy

Means lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern.

34. Apogee

Is the highest point in the development of something; a climax or culmination. In astronomy, it means the point in the orbit of the moon or a satellite at which it is furthest from the earth. It is the opposite of perigee (the point in the orbit of the moon or a satellite when it is closest to the earth).

35. Apostasy

Is the act of giving up your religious or political beliefs and leaving a religion or a political party. One who commits apostasy is known as an apostate.

36. Apotheosis

Is the glorification of a subject to divine level; the highest point in the development of something; a culmination.

37. Appease

Make peace with; pacify or placate (someone) by acceding to their demands (for example: She claimed that the government had only changed the law in order to appease their critics).

38. Apprise

Means to inform somebody of something (for example: We must apprise them of the dangers that may be involved).

39. Archaism

(from the Ancient Greek archaikos (meaning “oldfashioned, antiquated”)) is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.

40. Archetype

Means something that is considered to be a perfect or typical example of a particular kind of person or thing, because it has all their most important characteristics. For example, the United States is the archetype of a federal society.

41. Arid

Means extremely dry or deathly boring. If you describe something, such as a period of your life, as arid, you mean that it has so little interest, excitement, or purpose that it makes you feel bored or unhappy.

42. Arouse

To cause someone to have a particular feeling, or response; to cause an emotion or attitude.

43. Assertion

Is a statement, usually backed up by some kind of solid proof or reasoning; a confident and forceful statement of fact or belief.

44. Assiduous

Means persistent, hard-working. If you call someone assiduous, it means they’re careful, methodical and very persistent.

45. Assuage

Means to make (an unpleasant feeling) less intense.

46. Assumption

Something that you consider likely to be true even though no one has told you directly or even though you have no proof.

47. Attendee

Participant or a person who attends a conference or other gathering.

48. Austere

Means stern and forbidding. If you describe something as austere, you approve of its plain and simple appearance.

49. Avail

To be of use, help, worth, or advantage (to), as in accomplishing an end (for example: My attempts to improve the situation were of little/no avail).

50. Avarice

Means greedy desire for wealth or material gain.

51. Axiom

Is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

52. Banter

Good-humored, playful conversation; the playful and friendly exchange of teasing remarks.

53. Bashful

Self-consciously timid, often feeling uncomfortable with other people and easily embarrassed.

54. Beforehand

At an earlier or preceding time; in advance; prior to; earlier (than a particular time).

55. Bellicose

Inclined or ready to fight; aggressively hostile.

56. Benevolent

Friendly and helpful; characterized by or expressing goodwill or kindly feelings.

57. Bewilder

To become perplexed and confused (for example: Beware of false people and situations that may bewilder you temporarily).

58. Bias

Means the action of supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way or different from the way you treat other people.

59. Blare

Means to make a loud and unpleasant noise (for example: If something such as a siren or radio blares or if you blare it, it makes a loud, unpleasant noise).

60. Boon

Something that is desirable, favorable, or beneficial.

61. Brackish

Means distasteful and unpleasant (for example: Brackish water is slightly salty and unpleasant).

62. Brazen

Obvious, without any attempt to be hidden. If you describe a person/behavior as brazen, you mean that they are very bold and don’t care what other people think about them or their actions.

63. Burgeon

To develop, expand, or grow rapidly.

64. Cadaverous

Having appearance or color of dead human body; looking very pale and ill.

65. Cajole

Means to persuade someone to do something by encouraging them softly or being good to them.

66. Camaraderie

Brotherhood, partnership, jovial unity, sociability amongst friends.

67. Candor

The quality of being honest and straightforward.

68. Cantankerous

Means ill humored, irritable, marked by ill-tempered contradiction or opposition, ugly, malicious.

69. Castigation

To criticize someone or something severely; verbal punishment. The word comes from the Latin castigus which means “to make pure”.

70. Catharsis

Is the purging of the emotions, especially through certain kinds of art (as music or tragedy) that brings about spiritual renewal or release from tension.

71. Cavil

To raise irritating and trivial objections; to argue or protest about unimportant details.

72. Circuitous

Indirect, taking the longest route (for example: A circuitous journey/path is longer than it needs to be because it is not direct).

73. Circumlocution

Can be described as the use of too many words to say something, especially in order to avoid saying something clearly; an indirect way of expressing something.

74. Clairvoyant

Exceptionally insightful, able to foresee the future. Clairvoyant is believed to know about future events or to be able to communicate with dead people.

75. Coercion

Means the use of force to persuade someone to do something that they are unwilling to do.

76. Cogent

Reasonable and convincing; based on evidence; forcefully persuasive.

77. Cognitive

Relating to the mental process involved in knowing, learning, and understanding things.

78. Coincide

Means to happen at or near the same time or during the same period, to occupy exactly the same space.

79. Comity

Is a state or atmosphere of harmony or mutual civility; polite and considerate behaviour towards others based on mutual respect.

80. Commensurate

Equal in significance; corresponding in size or degree.

81. Concede

Means to admit or accept that something is true after first denying or resisting it.

82. Conciliation

Is the act of placating and overcoming distrust and animosity; the action or process of ending a disagreement.

83. Condescending

Showing or characterized by a patronizing or superior attitude toward others.

84. Confidant

Means someone to whom private matters are told. A confidant is the person you tell your secrets to.

85. Conformity

Is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. This tendency to conforms to small groups and/or society as a whole, and may result from subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overpressure. Conformity can occur in the presence of others, or when an individual is alone.

86. Congruence

Is the consistency of different elements, objects, components of any structure, their harmonious work and consistency with each other, due to which harmonious work and integrity of the overall structure are achieved.

87. Connotation

Is a feeling or idea that is suggested by a particular word although it need not be a part of the word’s meaning, or something suggested by an object or situation (for example, the word “lady” has connotations of refinement and excessive femininity that some women find offensive).

88. Construe

Make sense of; to understand the meaning, especially of other people’s actions and statements, in a particular way.

89. Contention

The disagreement that results from opposing arguments; the act of competing as for profit or a prize.

90. Convergence

The state of separate elements joining or coming together (for example: If roads or paths converge, they move towards the same point where they join).

91. Corroborate

Means to confirm or make more certain.

92. Coterie

A group that meets socially; an exclusive circle of people with common purpose.

93. Countenance

Give sanction or support to; tolerate or approve (for example: If someone will not countenance something, they do not agree with it and will not

allow it to happen).

94. Credulous

Having a tendency to believe on slight evidence; easily imposed upon; unsuspecting and very gullible.

95. Curtail

Reduce in extent or quantity; terminate or abbreviate before its intended or proper end.

96. Dearth

Means scarcity, shortage of food, famine from failure or loss of crops.

97. Decorous

Characterized by propriety and dignity and good taste.

98. Deference

Means a polite or gentle regard for people’s feelings.

99. Deft

Very skillful, capable.

100. Delectable

Delightful; delicious; extremely pleasing to the sense of taste.

101. Delineate

Portray; depict; draw or trace outline of; sketch out.

102. Delinquent

Means failing in duty, offending by neglect of duty. A delinquent person behaves in a way that is illegal or not acceptable to most people.

103. Demeanor

The way a person behaves toward other people.

104. Denigrate

To speak damagingly of; to criticize something in a way that shows you think it has no value/ importance at all.

105. Denounce

Condemn openly; criticize; make known in formal manner.

106. Deprivation

Is the lack (or feeling of lack) of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society; the lack of something considered to be a necessity in general (sleep deprivation, food deprivation, etc.; as an example, plants experiencing water deprivation will shrivel up and die).

107. Depute

Means transfer power to someone; appoint or instruct (someone) to perform a task for which one is responsible.

108. Deterrent

Means something immaterial that interferes with action or progress (for example: The stop sign on the corner is supposed to be a deterrent that discourages speeding).

109. Deviant

(from the Latin word deviare (meaning “to turn out of the way”)) is a term used to describe a person or behavior that is not usual and is generally considered to be different and unacceptable.

110. Diatribe

Is an angry speech or article which is extremely critical of someone’s ideas or activities.

111. Didactic

Instructive; intended to teach, especially excessively.

112. Digression

The act of turning aside, straying from the main point, esp. in a speech or argument.

113. Diligent

Having or showing care and integrity in one’s work or duties.

114. Disclose

Expose to view as by removing a cover; to make something known publicly, or to show something that was hidden.

115. Disconsolate

Sad; cheerless; gloomy; hopeless or not expecting.

116. Discordant

Not in agreement or harmony.

117. Disdain

Means to regard with scorn or contempt. If you disdain to do something, you do not do it, because you feel that you are too important to do it.

118. Disparage

Express a negative opinion of (for example: He never missed an opportunity to disparage his competitors).

119. Dispassionate

Able to be rational and make fair judgments or decisions that are not influenced by personal feelings or emotions.

120. Docile

Easily handled or managed; submissive; ready to accept control or instruction.

121. Doctrine

(from Latin doctrina (meaning “teaching, instruction”)) is a belief or set of beliefs, especially political or religious ones that are taught and accepted by a particular group.

122. Dour

Means hard; inflexible; obstinate; gloomy in manner or appearance.

123. Downshifting

Is the practice of simplifying one’s lifestyle and becoming less materialistic; the act of leaving a well-paid but difficult and stressful job (escaping from “work and spend cycle”) to do something that gives you more time and satisfaction, but less money.

124. Dualism

(from the Latin word duo (meaning “two”)) is the belief that things are divided into two often very different or opposing parts.

125. Duplicity

Means dishonest behavior that is intended to trick someone.

126. Ebullient

Overflowing with fervor, enthusiasm, or excitement; high-spirited.

127. Eclecticism

Is a combination of dissimilar, internally unrelated and possibly incompatible attitudes, ideas, concepts, styles, etc. The essence of eclecticism is the use of disparate elements to create something new.

128. Effrontery

Audacious behavior that you have no right to; extreme rudeness.

129. Egregious

Conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible.

130. Eloquent

Expressing what you mean using clear and effective language; fluent or persuasive in speaking or writing.

131. Elucidate

Means to explain something or make something clear.

132. Emancipation

Means any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in the discussion of such matters.

133. Embellish

To decorate, to add details to, enhance.

134. Embezzle

Means to steal money/wealth that people trust you to look after.

135. Empirical

Means something that is based on investigation, observation, experimentation, or experience. If knowledge is empirical, it’s based on observation rather than theory.

136. Enervate

Cause (someone or something) to feel drained of energy; weaken.

137. Enigma

Means a person or thing that is mysterious, puzzling, or difficult to understand.

138. Ennui

Is a feeling of being bored and having no interest in anything.

139. Epigram

Means a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement; a short saying or poem which expresses an idea in a very clever and amusing way.

140. Epitome

Is the typical or highest example of a stated quality. If you say that a person or thing is the epitome of something, you are emphasizing that they are the best possible example of a particular type of person or thing (This hotel was the epitome of British colonial elegance in Jamaica; Maureen was the epitome of sophistication).

141. Ephemeral

Means momentary, transient, fleeting; lasting for a very short time.

142. Equivocation

(“calling two different things by the same name”) is an informal fallacy resulting from the use of a particular word/expression in multiple senses throughout an argument leading to a false conclusion. For example: “All jackasses have long ears.” “Carl is a jackass.” “Therefore, Carl has long ears.” Here, the equivocation is the metaphorical use of “jackass” to imply a simple-minded or obnoxious person instead of a male donkey.

143. Euphemism

(from Greek euphemia (meaning “the use of words of good omen”)) is a polite word or expression that is used to refer to taboo topics (such as disability, sex, excretion, and death). For example, “passed away” is a euphemism for “died”. It also may be a replacement of a name or a word that could reveal secret or holy and sacred names to the uninitiated.

144. Evanescent

Quickly fading, short-lived, especially an image.

145. Exaggeration

Is a representation of something in an excessive manner. People exaggerate things because they have strong feelings about something. People may exaggerate to make people listen to what they say. They may do it to emphasize something. They may also exaggerate just to sound funny.

146. Exemplify

Means to clarify by giving an illustration of.

147. Extemporize

Perform or speak without preparation.

148. Extrapolate

In general, it means using facts about the present or about one thing or group to make a guess about the future or about other things or groups. When you extrapolate, you use specific details to make a general conclusion. For example, if you travel to Canada and encounter only friendly, kind natives, you might extrapolate that all Canadians are friendly.

149. Facetious

Treating serious issues with intentionally inappropriate humor; flippant.

150. Fallacious

Containing or based on incorrect reasoning; not correct.

151. Fastidious

Giving careful attention to detail; very attentive.

152. Foible

Means a slight weakness in someone’s character (for example: The minor foible in the woman’s character made her unsuitable for the career she really wanted).

153. Forbearance

Self-control; patience; restraint (for example: His forbearance to reply was alarming).

154. Fortuitous

Happening by luck, fortunate.

155. Frenzy

Is a state or period of uncontrolled excitement or wild behavior. Frenzy is often used when talking about a group of people (or animals) who get worked up at the same time about the same thing.

156. Fret

Be constantly or visibly anxious; to be nervous or worried.

157. Frivolous

Not serious in attitude or behavior; not having any serious purpose or value.

158. Frugal

Means thrifty, cheap; simple and plain and costing little.

159. Frustration

Can be described as the feeling of being upset or annoyed as a result of being unable to change or achieve something. There are two types of frustration: internal and external. Internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals, desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual’s control.

160. Galvanize

Means to shock or affect someone enough to produce a strong and immediate reaction, typically into taking action.

161. Gestalt

Something that has particular qualities when you consider it as a whole which is not obvious when you consider only the separate parts of it.

162. Gluttonous

Means a person who eats or consumes immoderate amounts of food and drink; excessively greedy.

163. Grandiloquent

Style or way of using language in very complex way, in order to attract admiration and attention; big words used in a overly self-assured way.

164. Grimace

Contort the face to indicate a certain mental state.

165. Gullible

Easily persuaded to believe something.

166. Hackneyed

Means something cliche that has been overused or done too much.

167. Harangue

Is a loud pompous statement expressed by strong emotions.

168. Haughty

Means arrogant and condescending. When you’re haughty, you have a big attitude and you behave as if you are better than others.

169. Hitherto

Means up to this point; until the present time.

170. Ignominious

Deserving or bringing disgrace or shame.

171. Impecunious

Having little or no money.

172. Impetuous

Means rash, impulsive, acting without thinking.

173. Impregnable

Resistant to capture or penetration; strong enough to resist or withstand attack; not to be taken by force. If you describe a building or other place as impregnable, you mean that it cannot be broken into or captured.

174. Inauguration

Is the act of putting a service, system, etc. into action, or an occasion when this happens.

175. Incensed

Angered at something unjust or wrong (for example: Teacher was incensed at his lack of concentration).

176. Inchoate

Not completely developed or clear. If something is inchoate, it is new or not yet properly developed.

177. Inconsequential

Unimportant, trivial (for example: His work seems trivial and inconsequential).

178. Indelible

Not able to be removed or erased. An example of indelible is ink that cannot be washed out of a shirt.

179. Indolent

Wanting to avoid activity or exertion; lazy, slothful.

180. Inexorable

Incapable of being persuaded or placated; continuing without any possibility of being stopped.

181. Infatuation

A foolish and usually extravagant passion or love.

182. Infuse

Means to instill a quality of; to fill someone or something with an emotion or quality; add scent or flavor by steeping ingredients in it.

183. Ingrate

A person who shows no gratitude; ungrateful.

184. Initiation

(from Latin initium (meaning “entrance or beginning”)) is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society.

185. Injunction

Is a judicial remedy to prohibit a party from doing something.

186. Insinuate

To say something which seems to mean something unpleasant without saying it openly; to suggest indirectly or subtly.

187. Insurgent

A rebel or revolutionary; in opposition to a civil authority or government.

188. Interpolation

Is an interruption or an addition inserted into something spoken or written. If you tell a story and then add some new parts, those are interpolations.

189. Intervention

Is an orchestrated attempt by one or many people – usually family and friends – to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or  some kind of traumatic event or crisis, or other serious problem; when a group of friends gets together to help out another friend who has a problem, like drugs, manic depression, beating his wife, etc. usually involves an informal gettogether during which the friends all sit down and talk with the person having problems.

190. Intransigent

Refusing to compromise, often on an extreme opinion (for example: The company is intransigent and rejects any notion of a settlement).

191. Intrepid

(from Latin intrepidus, formed from the prefix in (not) + trepidus (alarmed)) – extremely brave and showing no fear of dangerous situations; fearless; adventurous (often used for rhetorical or humorous effect).

192. Inveterate

Habitual; someone who does something very often.

193. Jejune

Understanding or describing something in a way that is too simple, naive, or simplistic.

194. Jubilation

Is a feeling of great happiness, triumph or joy.

195. Juxtaposition

Means two things placed beside each other for the sake of implicit comparison.

196. Laudable

Deserving praise and commendation. Laudable refers to something or someone who does the right thing or the morally proper action.

197. Lobbying

Is the act of trying to persuade governments to make decisions or support something. Lobbying can be done by many sorts of people, alone or in groups. These people are called lobbyists.

198. Longevity

Is the fact of having a long life or existence.

199. Loquacious

Talking or tending to talk a great deal or freely; talkative; garrulous.

200. Ludicrous

So foolish, stupid, unreasonable, or inappropriate as to be amusing; ridiculous.

201. Lucid

Very clear and easy to understand.

202. Maddening

Means extremely annoying or displeasing.

203. Memorandum

Is a short written report prepared specially for a person or group of people that contains information about a particular matter.

204. Mercurial

Characterized by rapid change or temperament; sudden or unpredictable changes of mood or mind.

205. Metaphor

Is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect. It does not use a word in its basic literal sense. Instead, it uses a word in a kind of comparison. “I beat him with a stick” – literal meaning of “beat”. “I beat him in an argument” – metaphorical meaning of “beat”.

206. Mettle

Means a person’s ability to cope well with difficulties; strongwilled.

207. Misalliance

Means an unsuitable or unhappy alliance (especially with regard to marriage).

208. Misanthropy

(from the Greek misos (hatred) and anthropos (man, human)) is a general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature.

209. Modicum

A small quantity of a particular thing (for example: I was pleased with the overall response and I think we collectively felt a modicum of relief).

210. Moratorium

Is a period of time when there is a suspension of a specific activity until future events warrant a removal of the suspension, or issues regarding the activity have been resolved.

211. Mundane

Means ordinary, commonplace. Something that is mundane is very ordinary and not at all interesting or unusual. In subcultural and fictional uses, it is a person who does not belong to a particular group, according to the members of that group.

212. Mutter

To talk indistinctly, usually in a low voice.

213. Nomenclature

Is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. In other words, nomenclature is a system for giving names to things within a particular profession or field.

214. Nonchalant

Calm, casual, seeming unexcited; behaving in a calm manner, often in a way that suggests you are not interested or do not care.

215. Novice

A beginner, someone without training or experience.

216. Nugatory

Worth nothing or of little value/importance.

217. Obfuscation

Is the act or an instance of making something obscure, dark, or difficult to understand; the obscuring of the intended meaning of a communication by making the message difficult to understand, usually with confusing and ambiguous language.

218. Oblivion

Is the state of being completely forgotten, unknown, or destroyed. In philosophy, eternal oblivion is the permanent cessation of one’s consciousness upon death.

219. Obloquy

Is a censure, blame, or abusive language aimed at a person or thing, especially by numerous persons or by the society.

220. Obsequious

Means attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery.

221. Obstreperous

Noisy, aggressive, and difficult to control.

222. Odious

Extremely unpleasant and causing or deserving hate.

223. Opaque

Not able to be seen through; not easily understood. Use the adjective opaque either for something that doesn’t allow light to pass through (like a heavy curtain) or for something difficult to understand.

224. Orthodoxy

(from Greek orthodoxia (meaning “right opinion”)) is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion. In the Christian sense the term means “conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church”.

225. Ostentation

Is a show of something such as money, power, or skill that is intended to impress people.

226. Outbreak

Is a sudden occurrence of something unwelcome, such as war or disease. This term most commonly used in epidemiology. When more cases of a disease than expected are recorded in one area an outbreak is declared.

227. Outlier

Means an extreme deviation from the mean; a person, thing, or fact that is so different that can’t be used for general conclusions.

228. Outmoded

No longer in fashion; oldfashioned.

229. Oxymoron

Is a combination of two words used together that have, or seem to have, opposite meanings. Some examples of an oxymoron: Great Depression; cruel to be kind; painfully beautiful; alone together; wise fool; true myth, etc.

230. Paradigm

Is a model of something, or a very clear and typical example of something; a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. Paradigm shift – a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) – means a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.

231. Parched

Shriveled; dried out because of too much heat and not enough rain.

232. Parsimonious

Excessively unwilling to spend money or use resources.

233. Peremptory

Speaking or behaving rudely, as if you expect other people to obey/submit you immediately and without any questions.

234. Perfidious

Faithless, disloyal, untrustworthy. If you describe someone as perfidious, you mean that they have betrayed someone or cannot be trusted.

235. Perpetual

Continuing forever or indefinitely; never ending or changing.

236. Pert

Characterized by a lightly saucy or impudent quality.

237. Placate

Means to make (someone) less angry or hostile; to appease or pacify, especially by concessions or conciliatory gestures.

238. Plethora

Means a very large amount of something, especially a larger amount than you need, want, or can deal with.

239. Polemic

An aggressive argument against a specific opinion, doctrine, etc.

240. Postulate

Means something assumed without proof as being selfevident or generally accepted, especially when used as a basis for an argument; a fundamental element; a basic principle. Sometimes postulates are not obviously correct, but are required for their consequences.

241. Pragmatic

Dealing with the problems that exist in a reasonable and logical way instead of depending on theories.

242. Prattle

Means to talk in a silly way for a long time about things that are not important or without saying anything important.

243. Preamble

(from the Latin praeambulum (meaning “walking before”)) is an introductory statement in a document that explains the document’s purpose and underlying philosophy, and clarifies the meaning of the operative part of the text in case of an ambiguity or dispute.

244. Precipitate

Means to make something happen quickly, suddenly or sooner than expected.

245. Preponderance

Exceeding in heaviness; the largest part or greatest amount. If there’s a preponderance of something, there is a lot of it.

246. Presumption

Is the act of believing that something is true without having any proof. In the law of evidence, a presumption of a particular fact can be made without the aid of proof in some situations.

247. Prevaricate

Means to avoid telling the truth by not directly answering a question.

248. Procrastination

Is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished; the behavior of putting off actions or tasks to a later time.  Sometimes, procrastination takes place until the “last minute” before a deadline. A procrastinator is a person who delays or puts things off (like work or other actions).

249. Proliferation

Is a rapid increase in the number or amount of something.

250. Prosaic

Dull, commonplace; without interest, imagination, and excitement.

251. Prostration

Is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position as a gesture; the action of lying with the face down and arms stretched out, especially as a sign of respect or worship.

252. Protract

Lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer. If you have a disagreement with a friend that you continue for days, you are protracting the argument.

253. Prudent

Careful, cautious; avoiding risks.

254. Puerile

Behaving in a silly way; childish.

255. Quaff

Means to swallow hurriedly or greedily or in one draught.

256. Querulous

Often complaining; irritable.

257. Quintessence

Is the most typical example of something. For example, the Parthenon in Greece was considered the quintessence of the perfectly proportioned


258. Quixotic

Hopeful or romantic in a way that is extremely idealistic; unrealistic and impractical.

259. Rancorous

Means hateful. A rancorous argument or person is full of bitterness and anger.

260. Ratification

Is the act of voting on a decision or signing a written agreement to make it official.

261. Reclusive

Preferring to live in isolation; avoiding the company of other people.

262. Recondite

Means something that is difficult or impossible for most to understand, or that most people don’t know about.

263. Refurbish

Renovate and redecorate something; improve the appearance or functionality of.

264. Refute

Prove to be wrong or false; overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof.

265. Relativism

Is an idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration. There is no universal, objective truth according to relativism; rather each point of view has its own truth.

266. Renovation

Repair, making something new again.

267. Repudiate

Refuse to accept, acknowledge, ratify, or recognize as valid.

268. Resilient

Able to withstand or recover quickly from difficult conditions; bounce back.

269. Rubicon

Is a point of no return; to cross/pass the Rubicon means to take a decisive, irrevocable step.

270. Sacrosanct

Holy, something that should not be criticized.

271. Sanctum

A sacred place, especially a shrine within a temple or church.

272. Sardonic

Means a disdainfully or ironically humorous; scornful, cynical and mocking.

273. Schism

Division of a group into opposing factions. When there is a schism, a group or organization divides into two groups as a result of differences in thinking and beliefs.

274. Scrupulous

Characterized by extreme care and great effort; extremely attentive to details; very concerned to avoid doing wrong.

275. Scrutinize

To look at something very closely or very carefully.

276. Shatter

Means to break suddenly into very small pieces, or to make something break in this way.

277. Spurious

Means plausible but false; not being what it purports to be; fake.

278. Stagnation

(from Latin stagnatum (meaning “standing water, pond, and swamp”)) is the state of lack of activity, growth, or development.

279. Status quo

Is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues. In the sociological sense, it generally applies to maintain or change existing social structure and values.

280. Strident

Means unpleasantly loud and harsh.

281. Superficial

Appearing to be true or real only until examined more closely.

282. Supplicant

Is a person who asks someone who is in a position of power for something in a very humble way. If you pray every night to be accepted to your dream college, you can call yourself a supplicant.

283. Synecdoche

Is a figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa. If you buy a car and you say to your friends that you just got a new set of wheels, you’re using synecdoche – you’re using the wheels, which are part of a car, to refer to the whole car (“a pair of hands” is a synecdoche for “a worker”; “the law” for “a police officer”).

284. Synergy

Is the combined power of a group of things when they are working together that is greater than the total power achieved by each working separately.

285. Taboo

Is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either too sacred or too accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake.

286. Taciturn

Means uncommunicative. Someone who is taciturn does not speak often and does not say very much.

287. Tautology

Is the use of different words to say the same thing twice in the same statement. The word tautology is derived from the Greek word tauto (meaning “the same”) and logos (meaning “a word or an idea”). For example, “They spoke in turn, one after the other” is considered a tautology because “in turn” and “one after the other” mean the same thing.

288. Teeming

Abundantly filled or swarming with something, as with people (for example: The Internet is teeming with viruses).

289. Tenacious

Determined to do something and unwilling to stop trying even when the situation becomes difficult, keeping a firm grip on.

290. Terrestrial

Of or relating to the earth or its inhabitants. An example of a terrestrial is a person who lives on the planet.

291. Tortuous

Indirect; winding; with many turns and changes of direction.

292. Transcendental

Literally means beyond the limits of cognition and earthly experience. Transcendental describes anything that has to do with the spiritual, nonphysical world.

293. Unkempt

Not properly maintained or cared for (for example: His hair was unkempt and dirty).

294. Utilitarianism

Is the system of thought which states that the best action or decision in a particular situation is the one that brings more advantages to the most people.

295. Vacillate

Means to waver between different opinions or actions.

296. Venerate

To regard with great respect.

297. Verisimilitude

Being believable, or having the appearance of being true (for example: You can improve your game by using the real sounds of the ocean, to create verisimilitude).

298. Vicarious

Experienced as a result of watching, listening to, or reading about the activities of other people, rather than by doing the activities yourself. For example, lots of people use television as their vicarious form of social life.

299. Vicissitude

Is a change of circumstances or fortune, typically one that is unwanted or unpleasant.

300. Vilify

Spread negative information about something or someone.

301. Vindicate

To clear from blame or suspicion; to prove that what someone said or did was right or true, after other people thought it was wrong.

302. Vitriolic

Harsh, bitter, or malicious in tone. Vitriolic language or behaviour is cruel and full of hate.

303. Volatile

Likely to change rapidly and unpredictably (for example: A volatile person can suddenly become angry or violent).

304. Wanton

Undisciplined, lustful. A wanton action deliberately causes harm, damage, or waste without having any reason to.

305. Watershed

Literally means a region of land within which water flows down into a specified body; but also describes a critical point that marks a division or a change of course; a turning point.

306. Wry

Humorously sarcastic or mocking; showing that you think something is funny but not very pleasant, often by the expression on your face.

307. Zeal

Is a strong feel of interest and enthusiasm that makes someone very eager or determined to do something (Zealous – filled with eagerness in pursuit of something).

308. Zeugma

Is the use of a word to modify or govern two or more words usually in such a manner that it applies to each in a different sense or makes sense with only one (She broke his car and his heart; He opened his mind and his wallet at the movies; He fished for compliments and for trout).

Remember, building vocabulary takes time and consistent effort. Make use of flashcards, vocabulary apps, reading extensively, and practicing with sample questions to reinforce your understanding of these words.

Moreover, try to use them in your everyday conversations and writing to solidify your grasp. By incorporating these important vocabulary words into your study regimen, you’ll be better equipped to tackle the challenges of the IELTS, TOEIC, and TOEFL exams with confidence.

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