Oceans cover 71% of the earth, and affect climate and weather patterns that in turn impact the terrestrial environments. They are very important for transportation and as a source of food, yet are largely unexplored; it is commonly said that we know more about the surface of the moon than we do about the deepest parts of the oceans!
Oceanography is the study of the oceans and their phenomena and involves sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics, geology, meteorology. Marine biology is the study of the organisms that inhabit the seas and their interactions with each other and their environment.
Marine biology is a younger science than terrestrial biology as early scientists were limited in their study of aquatic organisms by lack of technology to observe and sample them.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the firsts to design a classification scheme for living organisms, which he called “the ladder of life” and in which he described 500 species, several of which were marine. He also studied fish gills and cuttlefish. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder published a 37-volume work called Natural History, which contained several marine species.
Below is the list of review questions related to Marine Biology:
|Introduction to Marine Biology
|What percentage of the earth is covered with oceans?
|What was the driving force behind the initial studies into oceanography?
|Who was the scientist on board the HMS Beagle in 1831?
|What theories did this scientist develop?
|In the early 19th century who proposed that no life could live in the deep ocean?
|Who was the chief scientist on board the HMS Challenger in 1872-76?
|What theories did Alexander Agassiz develop?
|Why study marine biology? give three reasons
|Explain the process of the scientific method
|Can scientific hypotheses ever be tested when controlled experiments are not possible? If so, how?
|Fundamentals of Ecology
|Define the term ecology.
|Define the term ecosystems.
|Give an example of abiotic factors affecting marine organisms.
|Give an example of biotic factors affecting marine organisms.
|Define the term habitat.
|Define the term niche.
|Define the term homeostasis.
|What is an ectotherm/poikilotherm?
|What is an endotherm/homeotherm?
|What is the difference between interspecific and intraspecific competition?
|What is resource partitioning? Give an example on a coral reef?
|Define a keystone predator and give an example of one?
|Name and describe the three types of symbiotic relationships.
|What is osmosis?
|What are osmoconformers?
|In which type of symbiotic relationship does one organism benefit and the other is not harmed in any way but does not benefit?
|Define the term population?
|What is the carrying capacity of a population?
|What does the term neritic refer to?
|What is plankton?
|What does benthic refer to?
|What does pelagic refer to?
|What is the difference between epifauna and infauna?
|What is an autotroph?
|What is the equation for photosynthesis?
|What is the primary energy source for autotrophs?
|What inorganic nutrients do photosynthetic organisms require?
|How do chemosynthetic organisms generate energy?
|What do detritivores feed on?
|What is the average percent of energy passed from one trophic level to another in a food chain? What is the rest used for?
|What is a realized niche and how does it compare to the fundamental niche of an organism?
|What is an r-selected species? Give an example of an r-selected marine animal.
|Explain how marine fishes maintain an internal salinity that is lower than their environment.
|Basics of Life
|Which polysaccharide is used for structure in the cell wall of plants?
|Which polysaccharide is used for the hard exterior of crabs and lobsters?
|What are the two major roles of carbohydrates in living organisms?
|Give three roles of lipids in marine organisms?
|Which macromolecule is an enzyme an example of?
|What are the two types of nucleic acids?
|What is the major role of nucleic acids in living organisms/
|What is the difference between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells?
|How do prokaryotic cells divide?
|How do eukaryotic cells divide/
|Which organelle is the site for photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells?
|What organelle is a long hair-like structure used in propulsion?
|Who independently formulated similar ideas to Darwin on the theory of evolution by natural selection?
|Explain the process of evolution by natural selection.
|What is a gene?
|What is fitness in evolutionary terms/
|What is the modern definition of a species?
|Which 2 words are use to describe a species in the binomial nomenclature system?
|List 4 possible isolating mechanisms that lead to sympatric speciation?
|What term describes the mechanism by which new species arise due to geographical isolation?
|Which comes first, the genus or species name when describing an organism using the binomial system?
|Which is capitalized, the genus or species name when describing an organism using the binomial system?
|Are protists prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms?
|Compare sexual and asexual reproduction
|What is the difference between a cladogram and a traditional phylogenetic tree?
|What are the various levels of taxonomic classification, from most to least inclusive?
|Why is a virus not considered to be alive?
|How do viruses replicate?
|Which bacteria can photosynthesize?
|Symbiosis with which organisms gave rise to eukaryotic cells?
|What are two roles of accessory pigments in photosynthetic organisms?
|What are stromatolites? Where are they found?
|What is the source of energy for chemosynthetic bacteria?
|In what ecosystem do you find chemosynthetic bacteria?
|Some cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen, what does this mean?
|Why are nitrogen fixation and nitrification important?
|Give an example of symbiotic bacteria?
|Which domain includes the single-celled prokaryotes that are similar to bacteria but very well adapted to extreme conditions?
|Can diatoms photosynthesize?
|What group of macroalgae are diatoms closely related to?
|What is impregnated in the cell wall of diatoms?
|When does a diatom switch from asexual to sexual reproduction?
|How does diatomaceous earth form, and what are three of its uses?
|What is the name of the feeding structure in coccolithophores?
|What are the coccoliths of coccolithophores made of?
|Can dinoflagellates photosynthesize?
|Give an example of an important dinoflagellate on coral reefs?
|What organism is typically responsible for red tides?
|What compound forms the multi-chambered test in formaniniferans?
|What organism is responsible for the pink sands on beaches in Tonga & the Bahamas?
|What are the two major shapes of marine bacteria?
|Explain the major ecological role that viruses play in the world’s oceans.
|Explain the major ecological roles that bacteria play in the world’s oceans.
|What is a decomposer?
|What is a lichen, and where are lichens found in the marine environment?
|What are the cell walls of fungi made of?
|What are the major ecological roles of marine fungi?
|Are protists prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
|Multi-cellular Primary Producers
|What is chromatic adaptation?
|How do seaweeds differ from marine flowering plants?
|How do seaweeds anchor to the substrate?
|Why are air bladders important in seaweeds?
|What are 2 of the roles of the slimy gelatinous mucilage of seaweeds?
|What are three medicinal uses of seaweed?
|Which of the following seaweeds would you expect to inhabit the deepest water; green algae, red algae, brown algae?
|Give an example of a member of the phylum Chlorophyta?
|Give an example of a member of the phylum Rhodophyta?
|What is carrageenan used for?
|Give an example of a member of the phylum Phaeophyta?
|How do large kelp conduct the products of photosynthesis to the deepest part of the plant?
|Where would you find Sargassum spp.? Why does it accumulate in that area?
|What are three examples of marine flowering plants?
|What are the horizontal underground stems of seagrasses called?
|Name three organisms that feed on seagrasses directly?
|Do a lot of marine herbivores feed on seagrasses
|What are three ecological roles of seagrasses?
|Must salt marsh plants always be submerged?
|Would you expect to find marsh plants in the tropics or temperate regions?
|Give 3 ecological roles of salt marsh plants?
|Where would you expect to find mangroves?
|Describe the roots of the red mangrove?
|Describe the roots of the black mangrove?
|Describe 3 adaptations of mangrove leafs to prevent water loss and salt accumulation?
|How do red and black mangroves reproduce?
|Give 3 ecological roles of mangroves?
|Point out two ecological similarities between salt marsh plants, mangroves and seagrasses.
|How do mangroves get rid of excess salt?
|What kind of wave action are mangroves well adapted for?
|What kind of multicellular primary producer can be used to treat goiter?
|Where is kelp most abundant?
|Which seaweed phylum has the greatest diversity?
|Which seaweed phylum includes the largest seaweeds?
|What is a coenocytic thallus? Which seaweed phylum includes many species that display one?
|Describe the alternation of generation that is common in seaweed reproduction.
|What is a stipe?
|What is the compensation depth?
|Sponges, Cnidarians and Ctenophores
|What are 4 distinctive characteristics of animals?
|What is the phylum that contains sponges?
|What is the name of the incurrent and excurrent pores in sponge?
|Are the cells in sponges organized into tissues and organs?
|What are choanocytes (collar cells)?
|What is the role of spicules?
|What are spicules made of?
|What is spongin?
|How do sponges reproduce asexually?
|How do sponges eat? Where does digestion occur?
|How do sponges prevent predation?
|Give an example of commensalism involving sponges?
|Which organisms are members of the phylum Cnidaria?
|What is the benefit of radial symmetry in the cnidarians?
|What are the two types of cnidarian body plans?
|What is an example of a spearing type of stinging organelle?
|What triggers the stinging cells in cnidaria?
|Give an example of a member of the class Hydrozoa?
|What is the skeleton of fire coral made of?
|Is the Portuguese Man-Of-War an example of a solitary or colonial hydrozoan?
|Give an example of a member of the class Scyphozoan?
|Is jellyfish part of the plankton?
|Give an example of a member of the class Anthozoan?
|What is the skeleton of hard coral made from?
|Do cnidarians have an anus?
|How does the upside-down jellyfish obtain its food?
|How do hard corals feed?
|What are the advantages of mass spawning in hard corals?
|How do corals reproduce asexually?
|Give an example of a serious coral predator in the Pacific?
|Give an example of a mutualistic symbiotic relationship involving Cnidaria?
|Can a ctenophore sting you?
|Describe the life cycle of a typical hydrozoan
|How do corals reproduce?
|How many tentacles would you expect on the polyp of a soft coral?
|Explain three differences between scyphozoans and ctenophores.
|Marine Worms, Bryozoans and Mollusks
|Why is bilateral symmetry favored in platyhelminthes (flatworms)?
|What is cephalization?
|Some flatworms reproduce sexually by reciprocal copulation. What does this mean?
|What phylum do round worms belong to?
|Give an example of an annelid with toxins in its setae?
|What are characteristic features of annelids?
|How does a typical errant polychaete move?
|How does a typical round worm move?
|What are the most common annelids in the marine environment?
|What type of feeding is characteristic of sedentary polychaetes?
|Give an example of a sedentary polychaete worm?
|What part of the mollusk produces the shell?
|What is the radula of a mollusk?
|What phylum and class contains chitons?
|Do all members of the class Gastropoda have a shell?
|What is the operculum?
|Are all gastropods herbivores?
|Which phylum contains Bivalves?
|What is the role of byssus threads in mussels?
|Describe the shell of the Nautilus?
|What are chromatophores?
|What is the name of the individual animals that make up a colony of Bryozoans?
|What is the name of the crown of tentacles on the head of a bryozoan?
|How many appendages do coleoid cephalopods have?
|Which class of mollusk has a complex eye similar to vertebrates?
|Which phylum includes the segmented worms?
|Are any polychaetes detritivores?
|Do flat worms have an anus?
|Which class of mollusks has the most complex brain?
|Which class of mollusks has 2 valves?
|What is the name given to pelagic gastropods with reduced shells?
|Do annelids have a complete digestive tract?
|True or false. All nematodes are parasites.
|True or false. Some flatworms are parasites.
|Arthropods, Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
|What is the exoskeleton of an organism in the Phylum Arthropoda composed of?
|Is a horseshoe crab more closely related to a king crab or a spider?
|Which phylum contains organisms which need to molt their exoskeleton?
|Which subphylum of Arthropods lacks mouthparts for chewing food, and must suck up its food in a semi-liquid form?
|Which phylum contains Crustaceans?
|Give an example of an organism in the order Decapoda?
|Give two examples of important crustacean zooplankton in pelagic food chains.
|Which phylum and class do barnacles belong to?
|What does the term echinoderm mean?
|What is the advantage of radial symmetry shown by members of the Phylum Echinodermata?
|What is the system unique to echinoderms that is used in locomotion, feeding and gas exchange?
|Give an example of a member of the Phylum Echinodermata that has venom in its spines?
|What is the name of the 5 toothed feeding structure in sea urchins?
|Give an example of a method of defense in sea cucumbers?
|Give an example of a pelagic Tunicate?
|What group of crustaceans often fouls ships’ bottoms?
|Which group of small, laterally-compressed crustaceans is common on sandy beaches?
|Why are tunicates members of the Phylum Chordata?
|T/F: Crustaceans are all benthic.
|What is the advantage of cephalization in Arthropods?
|What are the defining features of Chelicerates?
|Which group of Arthropods have 2 pairs of antennae?
|What are mandibles? Name two species that have them.
|What body part is used for filter feeding in barnacles?
|What class and phylum do barnacles belong to?
|How do barnacles reproduce?
|What are the two main ways in which mantis shrimp catch their prey?
|Echinoderm larvae have ________________ symmetry.
|What is the water vascular system of echinoderms used for?
|What are tube feet used for in echinoderms?
|What are pedicellariae used for in echinoderms?
|Compare and contrast sea stars and brittle stars in their morphology and ecological roles.
|T/F: Echinoids are all herbivores.
|What are the four features that all chordates display at some point in their lives?
|What is the skeleton of jawless fish composed off?
|What are the two extant groups of jawless fish? How are they similar? How are they different?
|Which fish is able to tie its body in knots to remove excess slime and gain leverage to tear flesh?
|Give an example of a jawed fish with a cartilaginous skeleton?
|Do sharks and rays have a swim bladder?
|Name three mechanisms sharks use to remain neutrally buoyant?
|How do sharks achieve internal fertilization?
|What do the Ampullae of Lorenzini detect?
|Are all sharks predators?
|Describe the three different reproductive strategies seen in sharks.
|Why are the eyes and spiracles of a ray on the top side?
|Give four functions of the pectoral fins in ray-finned fish?
|Which caudal fin shape is best for high speeds?
|Which caudal fin shape is best for maneuvering at low speeds?
|What is the body shape a butterfly fish described as? How is it adapted to their habitat?
|What are chromatophores?
|What is an iridiophore?
|What is the advantage of counteshading?
|Give an example of a fish showing disruptive coloration?
|Which fins do parrotfish and wrasses use to swim?
|What is an operculum? Which groups of fish have one?
|Explain the counter current exchange system in the gills, and its importance?
|Compare and contrast osmoregulation in ray-finned fishes and in sharks.
|Why is it advantageous for active swimmers to have a counter current arrangement of arteries and veins? Which group of fishes displays this?
|What is a swim bladder and what is its main role?
|How does a fish with a closed swim bladder control its volume?
|Why do some active swimmers not have a swim bladder, and how do they achieve buoyancy instead?
|In addition to providing buoyancy, what other roles does the swim bladder have?
|What do neuromasts of the lateral line system detect?
|How are fish ears different to ours?
|What role does the swim bladder play in hearing?
|How does the lens in a fish eye adjust for distance?
|Why does a carnivorous fish swallow its prey whole?
|Give three adaptations to avoid predation seen in fish?
|Give an example of a simultaneous/synchronous hermaphroditic fish.
|Give an example of a protogynous sequential hermaphroditic fish.
|How do moray eels ventilate their gills?
|In most fishes, the ___________ fin is used for propulsion.
|Compare and contrast swimming pattern in a slow-moving eel and in a fast cruising fish like a tuna.
|Which group of fish is most closely related to land vertebrates?
|Describe adaptations that cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes have for defense against predators.
|Reptiles and Birds
|What is an amniotic egg, and what are the advantages of it?
|Why was the evolution of copulatory organs important for the evolution of the amniotic egg?
|How do marine crocodiles eliminate excess salt?
|What kind of reproductive strategy do marine crocodiles display? Where are baby crocodiles born?
|How do sea turtles eliminate excess salt?
|What organ do marine reptiles and birds use to breathe?
|Which species of turtle is found in cold oceans? What adaptation enables that?
|What do sea turtles feed on?
|Where do sea turtles mate? Where do they lay their eggs?
|How does temperature affect the development of sea turtles?
|Where would you find the only marine iguana?
|What adaptation helps marine iguanas live in the cold waters of the Pacific?
|How do iguanas feed underwater?
|How do marine iguanas eliminate excess salts?
|Give five examples of adaptations seen in sea snakes for a marine existence?
|How do marine birds remove excess salts from their bodies?
|What do shorebirds eat?
|How might climate change affect sex ratios in marine crocodiles and sea turtles?
|Do any seabirds spend their entire life at sea? If so, which one(s)?
|What do gulls feed on?
|What are the advantages and disadvantages of nesting in a colony?
|What is convergent evolution?
|Give an example of two groups of birds that are ecological equivalents?
|What is a crop and what is it used for?
|What species of pelican do we see in the Caribbean most frequently?
|What is a gular pouch and on which bird would you find it?
|What is the most common booby in the Caribbean?
|Which bird is used by fishermen in Asia to help them catch fish?
|What is cleptoparasitism and which bird exhibits it?
|Why can a frigate bird not attack prey underwater?
|Which male birds inflate their throats to attract a mate?
|Which group of seabird spends most of its life at sea?
|Give 2 examples of birds that pursue their prey underwater?
|Describe adaptations of seabirds to maintain their body temperature in cold climates.
|Which group of seabirds doesn’t have webbed feet?
|Which seabird migrates from pole to pole?
|Describe adaptations that penguins have for extensive swimming.
|What are three characteristic of mammals?
|How do sea otters insulate themselves, do they have blubber?
|What do sea otters generally feed on and how do they do this?
|What are the three families of pinnipeds?
|Explain three adaptations seen in pinnipeds for diving?
|What provides the propulsive force in eared seals?
|Are fur seals true seals?
|What provides the propulsive force in true seals?
|Which family of Pinnipeds can rotate their flippers to support their weight on land?
|Which seal is the only one to eat homeothermic prey?
|Are most seals monogamous or polygamous? Is sexual dimorphism common?
|Which pinniped has two upper canines evolved into tusks in the males?
|Where do pinnipeds give birth? Sirenians? Cetaceans?
|Give an example of a Sirenian.
|Where would you be most likely to see a Manatee?
|What is the main food source of Manatees and Dugongs?
|Cetaceans evolved from a mammal that live in what habitat? Give 3 lines of evidence for this.
|Give three roles of the subcutaneous blubber in cetaceans?
|What is a fluke?
|Describe the adaptations of cetaceans for diving.
|Why do cetaceans have large amounts of hemoglobin and myoglobin?
|Why is the medulla oblongata of cetaceans less sensitive to CO2 levels?
|What is spy hopping? And what is thought to be its purpose?
|What is breaching? And what are thought to be its purposes?
|What is the term used to describe a group of cetaceans?
|What are the 2 sub-orders of whales, and how do they differ?
|What is baleen composed of?
|What is bubble netting, and which cetacean commonly does this and why?
|Why were right whales considered the correct whale to hunt?
|What are ventral grooves of rorquals and what is their purpose?
|Give an example of a rorqual.
|What is the largest animal on earth?
|What is the main food source of baleen whales? How might this be related to their size?
|Give three examples of toothed whales.
|Which group of marine mammals has very well-developed social systems?
|Which is the only cetacean to eat homeothermic prey?
|What is the melon used for?
|Where are sounds picked up in echolocation?
|What is the role of echolocation in cetaceans?
|Describe the migration typical of large baleen whales.
|Which whale populations have been significantly reduced by commercial whaling/
|What does the term intertidal mean?
|Which environmental variables fluctuate daily in the intertidal zone?
|Which areas of the world experience a minimal tidal range?
|Describe typical temperate rocky intertidal zonation.
|Describe the adaptations seen in organisms in the mid-littoral zone of the rocky shore to withstand wave shock?
|Describe the adaptations seen in mobile organisms in the intertidal zone to withstand desiccation?
|Describe the adaptations seen in sessile organisms in the intertidal zone to withstand desiccation?
|Give three mechanisms used by intertidal organisms to reduce heat gain?
|Give two mechanisms to increase heat loss in organisms in the intertidal zone?
|When are organisms in the midlittoral zone of the rocky shore more active, high or low tide?
|How do mussels attach to the rock?
|What is the predominant macroalgae in the midlittoral zone of temperate rocky shores?
|How do seaweeds in the midlittoral zone overcome problems of desiccation?
|How can pH vary rapidly in a tide pool?
|Are rocky intertidal organisms predominantly marine or terrestrial?
|Give two differences between rocky shores in tropics and temperate regions?
|Explain the difference between top-down and bottom-up factors, giving examples of each?
|What kind of sediment (coarse or fine) would you expect to find on a sandy shore with high wave action?
|How does particle size affect water retention?
|How is wave action related to the type of animals found on a sandy shore?
|True or false: you expect to find more deposit feeders on a sandy shore than a rocky shore?
|If there are essentially no primary producers on sandy shore, what do animals eat?
|Why is sandy shore zonation less distinct than rocky shore zonation?
|Is competition more important in determining distribution on a sandy shore or a rocky shore?
|What is an estuary?
|Is the primary productivity of an estuary typically high or low? Why?
|Contrast the variation in temperature typically found in estuaries compared to surrounding coastal zones.
|Why are estuaries ideal nursery habitats for many fish and shellfish?
|What are the four types of estuaries and how do they differ geologically:
|Explain the difference between a positive and negative estuary?
|Give an example of a negative estuary?
|Are negative estuaries typically high or low in productivity and explain why?
|What are the 4 different salinity mixing patterns seen in estuaries, and explain each with reference to the angle of the halocline?
|Is the diversity in an estuary typically high or low?
|Is the biomass in an estuary typically high or low?
|Define the term osmoconformer, and give an example of one?
|Define the term osmoregulator, and give an example of one?
|Explain how marine and freshwater fish osmoregulate.
|List three adaptations against excessive water & salt exchange between surrounding environment?
|What does the term euryhaline mean?
|Define the term stenohaline?
|What is the main energy base in mud flats?
|Is there more infauna or epifauna on a mud flat?
|What is an epiphyte?
|Do you find salt marshes in the tropics?
|True or false: Succession in the salt marsh increases the terrestrial environment?
|Describe 3 ecological roles of salt marshes
|Describe the food webs found in salt marshes.
|Would you expect to find mangroves in temperate regions?
|Which mangrove (black, white or red) is found growing closest to the sea water?
|What are the prop roots?
|What are pneumatophores?
|Why is detritus such an important part of the food web for salt marsh, mangrove and seagrass communities?
|Which particular human activity is responsible for the destruction of large amounts of mangroves worldwide?
|How do mangroves tolerate high levels of salinity?
|Coral Reef Communities
|At what latitude would you expect to find coral reefs?
|What is the key factor contributing to the high levels of productivity found on reefs, in otherwise oligotrophic oceans?
|Why are coral reefs important? List 4 reasons:
|Which phylum and class contains hard corals?
|How does a coral colony grow?
|What does broadcast spawning mean?
|What is the name of the symbiotic algae in coral polyps?
|How do the coral and their symbionts both benefit from the symbiotic relationship?
|How else do corals obtain food, beside from their symbiotic algae?
|Describe the differences between fringing reefs, barrier reefs, atolls and patch reefs.
|How are atolls formed?
|What is the function of the spur and groove formation in the fore-reef?
|On which area of the reef would you expect massive corals to dominate?
|Which area of the reef receives the largest impact of the wave energy?
|Why are few corals along the west coast of Africa or the northeast coast of South America in the tropics?
|What is the optimum temperature for coral reef growth?
|How do slow growing corals compete on the reef?
|Why did coral cover decline in Jamaica from 52% to 3% in the 1980’s?
|Give 4 examples of threats to coral reefs?
|What happens during coral bleaching and why does the coral turn white?
|Can corals recover from coral bleaching?
|How might agricultural practices in Africa be affecting Caribbean reefs?
|Why are herbivores important to coral reef health?
|How do parrotfish protect themselves on the reef at night?
|How does increased atmospheric CO2 impact coral reefs, beside by contributing to a warming world?
|What echinoderm is an important predator of coral in the Indo-Pacific?
|What invasive fish has had a strong impact on reef fish communities in the Caribbean?
|What two main physical factors control vertical zonation along a forereef?
|Continental Shelves and Neritic Zone
|List two sources of nutrients on continental shelves?
|Where is the source of detritus for benthic communities of the continental shelf?
|Are the conditions more, or less stable on the benthic sea floor of the continental shelf than on intertidal shores?
|List three causes of patchiness on hard bottom communities on continental shelves
|What type of sediment would you expect when the current on the sea floor is strong? and when it is weak?
|What type of organisms are favored in a coarse and in a fine sediment environment?
|Why do you not find infauna if the currents are strong?
|On which coast of the USA would you expect to find giant kelp (Macrocystis sp.), and on which would you find Laminaria spp.?
|What are the keystone predators in kelp ecosystem on the east and on the west coast of the USA?
|What impact do sea urchins have on kelp communities?
|Why do deposit and suspension feeders generally not occur in the same areas in the soft bottom communities?
|How do the activities of burrowing sea cucumbers affect the patchiness of soft bottomed communities?
|Where is the neritic zone?
|What is the most abundant type of zooplankton in the neritic zone?
|Give two reasons why do coastal seas support a larger numbers of higher-level consumers?
|Why are bigger species of phytoplankton more common in the neritic zone compared to the open ocean?
|Where are the most productive planktonic ecosystems located?
|Why can changes in planktonic communities greatly affect populations of benthic organisms?
|Explain the two main reasons why are there relatively few large animals in the open ocean?
|How does the size and abundance of the primary producers differ between the open ocean and coastal seas? Why is this?
|What are the three vertical zones of the open ocean, based on light levels?
|What is the difference between plankton and nekton?
|What is meant by the terms holoplankton and meroplankton? And give an example of each?
|What is marine snow and why is it important?
|Why do zooplankton migrate vertically to the surface at night?
|What is the deep scattering layer formed by?
|Which oceanic fish maintains its body temperature 8-10oC higher than surroundings? And what are the advantages of this?
|Do tuna have a swim bladder? If not, how do they maintain buoyancy
|Which organism that makes up part of the nekton is full of internal and external parasites?
|How do sea snakes in the open ocean shed their skin?
|Which group of seabird is considered to be part of the nekton?
|Give an example of an organism that has spines to increase it frictional drag and reduce its sinking rate?
|Give 3 methods of increasing buoyancy?
|How do organisms in the open ocean avoid predation?
|What are two types of camouflage seen in the open ocean?
|What is the microbial loop and why is it important in the open ocean?
|Do some organisms eat bacterioplankton?
|Name three organisms found in the megaplankton
|What type of seaweed does not attach to the benthos and is found in the open ocean?
|In which vertical zones of the open ocean is most of the biomass concentrated? Why?
|What is plankton distribution patchy?
|Life in the Ocean’s Depths
|What are the physical characteristics of the deep sea?
|How much does the pressure increase with every 10 m down?
|Are the conditions more or less stable in the deep sea, compared to shallower ecosystems?
|Describe adaptations of deep sea organisms to deal with the high pressure.
|Describe adaptations of deep sea organisms to deal with the cold temperature.
|Describe an advantage of the cold temperature in the deep sea.
|What is the disphotic zone?
|What type of camouflage is seen in the disphotic zone?
|What is the name of light-producing organs?
|What are 4 roles of bioluminescence?
|What type of eyes would you expect on a fish that live at 800m deep? And on one that lives at 3000m deep?
|Describe the mating strategy of the male deep sea angler fish?
|Why do deep sea organisms often have large mouths and expandable stomachs?
|Describe typical deep benthic food chains.
|What kind of benthic organisms are most abundant in the deep sea?
|Why is diversity high in the deep sea?
|Where are hydrothermal vents mostly found?
|What are the primary producers in vent communities?
|How do organisms colonize new vents once one hydrothermal vent dies?
|What is the ecological role of whale falls in the deep ocean?
|Why are there hydrothermal vents of various color?
|What colors are most often seen in deep sea animals? Why?
|Marine Homeotherms of Polar Seas
|What is pack ice?
|What is fast ice?
|Describe three physical differences between the Arctic and the Antarctic?
|Is productivity higher in the Arctic or the Antarctic, and why?
|Describe the two main benefits of polar seas for marine mammals and birds.
|What is the main advantage of pupping on pack ice rather than in the water?
|How do newborn polar marine mammals achieve very high growth rates?
|Why are polar pinnipeds mostly monogamous?
|Do most pinnipeds show monomorphism or sexual dimorphism?
|Where and when do polar cetaceans give birth?
|Which seal has white pups with highly prized fur?
|Explain the sexual dimorphism seen in hooded seals?
|Are hooded seal polygynous or monogamous?
|Do both male and female walruses have tusks?
|What is the name of the white toothed whale that has a dorsal ridge to break the ice from below, and is preyed on by polar bears?
|Is the tusk on a narwhal longer in males or females?
|Do you find narwhals in the Arctic or the Antarctic?
|Are there penguins in the Arctic? If so, what species? If not, what is their ecological equivalent?
|What is the organism on which all species in the Antarctic depend either directly or indirectly? What is the phylum and class of this organism?
|How does the Weddell seal maintain an ice-free breathing hole?
|How does the reproductive strategy of Adelie penguins and emperor penguins differ?
|Why does the presence of sea ice increase polar primary productivity
|In which season is polar productivity highest/
|Which toothed whales are permanent residents of the Arctic? And of the Southern Ocean?
|Which seal eats homeothermic prey?
|What do crabeater seals eat?
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