[Science] 500+ Marine Biology Review Questions

Oceans cover 71% of the earth, and affect climate and weather patterns that in turn impact the terrestrial environments. They are very important for transportation and as a source of food, yet are largely unexplored; it is commonly said that we know more about the surface of the moon than we do about the deepest parts of the oceans!

Oceanography is the study of the oceans and their phenomena and involves sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics, geology, meteorology. Marine biology is the study of the organisms that inhabit the seas and their interactions with each other and their environment.

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Marine biology is a younger science than terrestrial biology as early scientists were limited in their study of aquatic organisms by lack of technology to observe and sample them.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the firsts to design a classification scheme for living organisms, which he called “the ladder of life” and in which he described 500 species, several of which were marine. He also studied fish gills and cuttlefish. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder published a 37-volume work called Natural History, which contained several marine species.

Below is the list of review questions related to Marine Biology:

Introduction to Marine Biology
1 What percentage of the earth is covered with oceans?
2 What was the driving force behind the initial studies into oceanography?
3 Who was the scientist on board the HMS Beagle in 1831?
4 What theories did this scientist develop?
5 In the early 19th century who proposed that no life could live in the deep ocean?
6 Who was the chief scientist on board the HMS Challenger in 1872-76?
7 What theories did Alexander Agassiz develop?
8 Why study marine biology? give three reasons
9 Explain the process of the scientific method
10 Can scientific hypotheses ever be tested when controlled experiments are not possible? If so, how?
Fundamentals of Ecology
11 Define the term ecology.
12 Define the term ecosystems.
13 Give an example of abiotic factors affecting marine organisms.
14 Give an example of biotic factors affecting marine organisms.
15 Define the term habitat.
16 Define the term niche.
17 Define the term homeostasis.
18 What is an ectotherm/poikilotherm?
19 What is an endotherm/homeotherm?
20 What is the difference between interspecific and intraspecific competition?
21 What is resource partitioning? Give an example on a coral reef?
22 Define a keystone predator and give an example of one?
23 Name and describe the three types of symbiotic relationships.
24 What is osmosis?
25 What are osmoconformers?
26 In which type of symbiotic relationship does one organism benefit and the other is not harmed in any way but does not benefit?
27 Define the term population?
28 What is the carrying capacity of a population?
29 What does the term neritic refer to?
30 What is plankton?
31 What does benthic refer to?
32 What does pelagic refer to?
33 What is the difference between epifauna and infauna?
34 What is an autotroph?
35 What is the equation for photosynthesis?
36 What is the primary energy source for autotrophs?
37 What inorganic nutrients do photosynthetic organisms require?
38 How do chemosynthetic organisms generate energy?
39 What do detritivores feed on?
40 What is the average percent of energy passed from one trophic level to another in a food chain? What is the rest used for?
41 What is a realized niche and how does it compare to the fundamental niche of an organism?
42 What is an r-selected species? Give an example of an r-selected marine animal.
43 Explain how marine fishes maintain an internal salinity that is lower than their environment.
Basics of Life
44 Which polysaccharide is used for structure in the cell wall of plants?
45 Which polysaccharide is used for the hard exterior of crabs and lobsters?
46 What are the two major roles of carbohydrates in living organisms?
47 Give three roles of lipids in marine organisms?
48 Which macromolecule is an enzyme an example of?
49 What are the two types of nucleic acids?
50 What is the major role of nucleic acids in living organisms/
51 What is the difference between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells?
52 How do prokaryotic cells divide?
53 How do eukaryotic cells divide/
54 Which organelle is the site for photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells?
55 What organelle is a long hair-like structure used in propulsion?
56 Who independently formulated similar ideas to Darwin on the theory of evolution by natural selection?
57 Explain the process of evolution by natural selection.
58 What is a gene?
59 What is fitness in evolutionary terms/
60 What is the modern definition of a species?
61 Which 2 words are use to describe a species in the binomial nomenclature system?
62 List 4 possible isolating mechanisms that lead to sympatric speciation?
63 What term describes the mechanism by which new species arise due to geographical isolation?
64 Which comes first, the genus or species name when describing an organism using the binomial system?
65 Which is capitalized, the genus or species name when describing an organism using the binomial system?
66 Are protists prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms?
67 Compare sexual and asexual reproduction
68 What is the difference between a cladogram and a traditional phylogenetic tree?
69 What are the various levels of taxonomic classification, from most to least inclusive?
Marine Micro-organisms
70 Why is a virus not considered to be alive?
71 How do viruses replicate?
72 Which bacteria can photosynthesize?
73 Symbiosis with which organisms gave rise to eukaryotic cells?
74 What are two roles of accessory pigments in photosynthetic organisms?
75 What are stromatolites? Where are they found?
76 What is the source of energy for chemosynthetic bacteria?
77 In what ecosystem do you find chemosynthetic bacteria?
78 Some cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen, what does this mean?
79 Why are nitrogen fixation and nitrification important?
80 Give an example of symbiotic bacteria?
81 Which domain includes the single-celled prokaryotes that are similar to bacteria but very well adapted to extreme conditions?
82 Can diatoms photosynthesize?
83 What group of macroalgae are diatoms closely related to?
84 What is impregnated in the cell wall of diatoms?
85 When does a diatom switch from asexual to sexual reproduction?
86 How does diatomaceous earth form, and what are three of its uses?
87 What is the name of the feeding structure in coccolithophores?
88 What are the coccoliths of coccolithophores made of?
89 Can dinoflagellates photosynthesize?
90 Give an example of an important dinoflagellate on coral reefs?
91 What organism is typically responsible for red tides?
92 What compound forms the multi-chambered test in formaniniferans?
93 What organism is responsible for the pink sands on beaches in Tonga & the Bahamas?
94 What are the two major shapes of marine bacteria?
95 Explain the major ecological role that viruses play in the world’s oceans.
96 Explain the major ecological roles that bacteria play in the world’s oceans.
97 What is a decomposer?
98 What is a lichen, and where are lichens found in the marine environment?
99 What are the cell walls of fungi made of?
100 What are the major ecological roles of marine fungi?
101 Are protists prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
Multi-cellular Primary Producers
102 What is chromatic adaptation?
103 How do seaweeds differ from marine flowering plants?
104 How do seaweeds anchor to the substrate?
105 Why are air bladders important in seaweeds?
106 What are 2 of the roles of the slimy gelatinous mucilage of seaweeds?
107 What are three medicinal uses of seaweed?
108 Which of the following seaweeds would you expect to inhabit the deepest water; green algae, red algae, brown algae?
109 Give an example of a member of the phylum Chlorophyta?
110 Give an example of a member of the phylum Rhodophyta?
111 What is carrageenan used for?
112 Give an example of a member of the phylum Phaeophyta?
113 How do large kelp conduct the products of photosynthesis to the deepest part of the plant?
114 Where would you find Sargassum spp.? Why does it accumulate in that area?
115 What are three examples of marine flowering plants?
116 What are the horizontal underground stems of seagrasses called?
117 Name three organisms that feed on seagrasses directly?
118 Do a lot of marine herbivores feed on seagrasses
119 What are three ecological roles of seagrasses?
120 Must salt marsh plants always be submerged?
121 Would you expect to find marsh plants in the tropics or temperate regions?
122 Give 3 ecological roles of salt marsh plants?
123 Where would you expect to find mangroves?
124 Describe the roots of the red mangrove?
125 Describe the roots of the black mangrove?
126 Describe 3 adaptations of mangrove leafs to prevent water loss and salt accumulation?
127 How do red and black mangroves reproduce?
128 Give 3 ecological roles of mangroves?
129 Point out two ecological similarities between salt marsh plants, mangroves and seagrasses.
130 How do mangroves get rid of excess salt?
131 What kind of wave action are mangroves well adapted for?
132 What kind of multicellular primary producer can be used to treat goiter?
133 Where is kelp most abundant?
134 Which seaweed phylum has the greatest diversity?
135 Which seaweed phylum includes the largest seaweeds?
136 What is a coenocytic thallus? Which seaweed phylum includes many species that display one?
137 Describe the alternation of generation that is common in seaweed reproduction.
138 What is a stipe?
139 What is the compensation depth?
Sponges, Cnidarians and Ctenophores
140 What are 4 distinctive characteristics of animals?
141 What is the phylum that contains sponges?
142 What is the name of the incurrent and excurrent pores in sponge?
143 Are the cells in sponges organized into tissues and organs?
144 What are choanocytes (collar cells)?
145 What is the role of spicules?
146 What are spicules made of?
147 What is spongin?
148 How do sponges reproduce asexually?
149 How do sponges eat? Where does digestion occur?
150 How do sponges prevent predation?
151 Give an example of commensalism involving sponges?
152 Which organisms are members of the phylum Cnidaria?
153 What is the benefit of radial symmetry in the cnidarians?
154 What are the two types of cnidarian body plans?
155 What is an example of a spearing type of stinging organelle?
156 What triggers the stinging cells in cnidaria?
157 Give an example of a member of the class Hydrozoa?
158 What is the skeleton of fire coral made of?
159 Is the Portuguese Man-Of-War an example of a solitary or colonial hydrozoan?
160 Give an example of a member of the class Scyphozoan?
161 Is jellyfish part of the plankton?
162 Give an example of a member of the class Anthozoan?
163 What is the skeleton of hard coral made from?
164 Do cnidarians have an anus?
165 How does the upside-down jellyfish obtain its food?
166 How do hard corals feed?
167 What are the advantages of mass spawning in hard corals?
168 How do corals reproduce asexually?
169 Give an example of a serious coral predator in the Pacific?
170 Give an example of a mutualistic symbiotic relationship involving Cnidaria?
171 Can a ctenophore sting you?
172 Describe the life cycle of a typical hydrozoan
173 How do corals reproduce?
174 How many tentacles would you expect on the polyp of a soft coral?
175 Explain three differences between scyphozoans and ctenophores.
Marine Worms, Bryozoans and Mollusks
176 Why is bilateral symmetry favored in platyhelminthes (flatworms)?
177 What is cephalization?
178 Some flatworms reproduce sexually by reciprocal copulation. What does this mean?
179 What phylum do round worms belong to?
180 Give an example of an annelid with toxins in its setae?
181 What are characteristic features of annelids?
182 How does a typical errant polychaete move?
183 How does a typical round worm move?
184 What are the most common annelids in the marine environment?
185 What type of feeding is characteristic of sedentary polychaetes?
186 Give an example of a sedentary polychaete worm?
187 What part of the mollusk produces the shell?
188 What is the radula of a mollusk?
189 What phylum and class contains chitons?
190 Do all members of the class Gastropoda have a shell?
191 What is the operculum?
192 Are all gastropods herbivores?
193 Which phylum contains Bivalves?
194 What is the role of byssus threads in mussels?
195 Describe the shell of the Nautilus?
196 What are chromatophores?
197 What is the name of the individual animals that make up a colony of Bryozoans?
198 What is the name of the crown of tentacles on the head of a bryozoan?
199 How many appendages do coleoid cephalopods have?
200 Which class of mollusk has a complex eye similar to vertebrates?
201 Which phylum includes the segmented worms?
202 Are any polychaetes detritivores?
203 Do flat worms have an anus?
204 Which class of mollusks has the most complex brain?
205 Which class of mollusks has 2 valves?
206 What is the name given to pelagic gastropods with reduced shells?
207 Do annelids have a complete digestive tract?
208 True or false. All nematodes are parasites.
209 True or false. Some flatworms are parasites.
Arthropods, Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
210 What is the exoskeleton of an organism in the Phylum Arthropoda composed of?
211 Is a horseshoe crab more closely related to a king crab or a spider?
212 Which phylum contains organisms which need to molt their exoskeleton?
213 Which subphylum of Arthropods lacks mouthparts for chewing food, and must suck up its food in a semi-liquid form?
214 Which phylum contains Crustaceans?
215 Give an example of an organism in the order Decapoda?
216 Give two examples of important crustacean zooplankton in pelagic food chains.
217 Which phylum and class do barnacles belong to?
218 What does the term echinoderm mean?
219 What is the advantage of radial symmetry shown by members of the Phylum Echinodermata?
220 What is the system unique to echinoderms that is used in locomotion, feeding and gas exchange?
221 Give an example of a member of the Phylum Echinodermata that has venom in its spines?
222 What is the name of the 5 toothed feeding structure in sea urchins?
223 Give an example of a method of defense in sea cucumbers?
224 Give an example of a pelagic Tunicate?
225 What group of crustaceans often fouls ships’ bottoms?
226 Which group of small, laterally-compressed crustaceans is common on sandy beaches?
227 Why are tunicates members of the Phylum Chordata?
228 T/F: Crustaceans are all benthic.
229 What is the advantage of cephalization in Arthropods?
230 What are the defining features of Chelicerates?
231 Which group of Arthropods have 2 pairs of antennae?
232 What are mandibles? Name two species that have them.
233 What body part is used for filter feeding in barnacles?
234 What class and phylum do barnacles belong to?
235 How do barnacles reproduce?
236 What are the two main ways in which mantis shrimp catch their prey?
237 Echinoderm larvae have ________________ symmetry.
238 What is the water vascular system of echinoderms used for?
239 What are tube feet used for in echinoderms?
240 What are pedicellariae used for in echinoderms?
241 Compare and contrast sea stars and brittle stars in their morphology and ecological roles.
242 T/F: Echinoids are all herbivores.
243 What are the four features that all chordates display at some point in their lives?
244 What is the skeleton of jawless fish composed off?
245 What are the two extant groups of jawless fish? How are they similar? How are they different?
246 Which fish is able to tie its body in knots to remove excess slime and gain leverage to tear flesh?
247 Give an example of a jawed fish with a cartilaginous skeleton?
248 Do sharks and rays have a swim bladder?
249 Name three mechanisms sharks use to remain neutrally buoyant?
250 How do sharks achieve internal fertilization?
251 What do the Ampullae of Lorenzini detect?
252 Are all sharks predators?
253 Describe the three different reproductive strategies seen in sharks.
254 Why are the eyes and spiracles of a ray on the top side?
255 Give four functions of the pectoral fins in ray-finned fish?
256 Which caudal fin shape is best for high speeds?
257 Which caudal fin shape is best for maneuvering at low speeds?
258 What is the body shape a butterfly fish described as? How is it adapted to their habitat?
259 What are chromatophores?
260 What is an iridiophore?
261 What is the advantage of counteshading?
262 Give an example of a fish showing disruptive coloration?
263 Which fins do parrotfish and wrasses use to swim?
264 What is an operculum? Which groups of fish have one?
265 Explain the counter current exchange system in the gills, and its importance?
266 Compare and contrast osmoregulation in ray-finned fishes and in sharks.
267 Why is it advantageous for active swimmers to have a counter current arrangement of arteries and veins? Which group of fishes displays this?
268 What is a swim bladder and what is its main role?
269 How does a fish with a closed swim bladder control its volume?
270 Why do some active swimmers not have a swim bladder, and how do they achieve buoyancy instead?
271 In addition to providing buoyancy, what other roles does the swim bladder have?
272 What do neuromasts of the lateral line system detect?
273 How are fish ears different to ours?
274 What role does the swim bladder play in hearing?
275 How does the lens in a fish eye adjust for distance?
276 Why does a carnivorous fish swallow its prey whole?
277 Give three adaptations to avoid predation seen in fish?
278 Give an example of a simultaneous/synchronous hermaphroditic fish.
279 Give an example of a protogynous sequential hermaphroditic fish.
280 How do moray eels ventilate their gills?
281 In most fishes, the ___________ fin is used for propulsion.
282 Compare and contrast swimming pattern in a slow-moving eel and in a fast cruising fish like a tuna.
283 Which group of fish is most closely related to land vertebrates?
284 Describe adaptations that cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes have for defense against predators.
Reptiles and Birds
285 What is an amniotic egg, and what are the advantages of it?
286 Why was the evolution of copulatory organs important for the evolution of the amniotic egg?
287 How do marine crocodiles eliminate excess salt?
288 What kind of reproductive strategy do marine crocodiles display? Where are baby crocodiles born?
289 How do sea turtles eliminate excess salt?
290 What organ do marine reptiles and birds use to breathe?
291 Which species of turtle is found in cold oceans? What adaptation enables that?
292 What do sea turtles feed on?
293 Where do sea turtles mate? Where do they lay their eggs?
294 How does temperature affect the development of sea turtles?
295 Where would you find the only marine iguana?
296 What adaptation helps marine iguanas live in the cold waters of the Pacific?
297 How do iguanas feed underwater?
298 How do marine iguanas eliminate excess salts?
299 Give five examples of adaptations seen in sea snakes for a marine existence?
300 How do marine birds remove excess salts from their bodies?
301 What do shorebirds eat?
302 How might climate change affect sex ratios in marine crocodiles and sea turtles?
303 Do any seabirds spend their entire life at sea? If so, which one(s)?
304 What do gulls feed on?
305 What are the advantages and disadvantages of nesting in a colony?
306 What is convergent evolution?
307 Give an example of two groups of birds that are ecological equivalents?
308 What is a crop and what is it used for?
309 What species of pelican do we see in the Caribbean most frequently?
310 What is a gular pouch and on which bird would you find it?
311 What is the most common booby in the Caribbean?
312 Which bird is used by fishermen in Asia to help them catch fish?
313 What is cleptoparasitism and which bird exhibits it?
314 Why can a frigate bird not attack prey underwater?
315 Which male birds inflate their throats to attract a mate?
316 Which group of seabird spends most of its life at sea?
317 Give 2 examples of birds that pursue their prey underwater?
318 Describe adaptations of seabirds to maintain their body temperature in cold climates.
319 Which group of seabirds doesn’t have webbed feet?
320 Which seabird migrates from pole to pole?
321 Describe adaptations that penguins have for extensive swimming.
Marine Mammals
322 What are three characteristic of mammals?
323 How do sea otters insulate themselves, do they have blubber?
324 What do sea otters generally feed on and how do they do this?
325 What are the three families of pinnipeds?
326 Explain three adaptations seen in pinnipeds for diving?
327 What provides the propulsive force in eared seals?
328 Are fur seals true seals?
329 What provides the propulsive force in true seals?
330 Which family of Pinnipeds can rotate their flippers to support their weight on land?
331 Which seal is the only one to eat homeothermic prey?
332 Are most seals monogamous or polygamous? Is sexual dimorphism common?
333 Which pinniped has two upper canines evolved into tusks in the males?
334 Where do pinnipeds give birth? Sirenians? Cetaceans?
335 Give an example of a Sirenian.
336 Where would you be most likely to see a Manatee?
337 What is the main food source of Manatees and Dugongs?
338 Cetaceans evolved from a mammal that live in what habitat? Give 3 lines of evidence for this.
339 Give three roles of the subcutaneous blubber in cetaceans?
340 What is a fluke?
341 Describe the adaptations of cetaceans for diving.
342 Why do cetaceans have large amounts of hemoglobin and myoglobin?
343 Why is the medulla oblongata of cetaceans less sensitive to CO2 levels?
344 What is spy hopping? And what is thought to be its purpose?
345 What is breaching? And what are thought to be its purposes?
346 What is the term used to describe a group of cetaceans?
347 What are the 2 sub-orders of whales, and how do they differ?
348 What is baleen composed of?
349 What is bubble netting, and which cetacean commonly does this and why?
350 Why were right whales considered the correct whale to hunt?
351 What are ventral grooves of rorquals and what is their purpose?
352 Give an example of a rorqual.
353 What is the largest animal on earth?
354 What is the main food source of baleen whales? How might this be related to their size?
355 Give three examples of toothed whales.
356 Which group of marine mammals has very well-developed social systems?
357 Which is the only cetacean to eat homeothermic prey?
358 What is the melon used for?
359 Where are sounds picked up in echolocation?
360 What is the role of echolocation in cetaceans?
361 Describe the migration typical of large baleen whales.
362 Which whale populations have been significantly reduced by commercial whaling/
Intertidal Ecology
363 What does the term intertidal mean?
364 Which environmental variables fluctuate daily in the intertidal zone?
365 Which areas of the world experience a minimal tidal range?
366 Describe typical temperate rocky intertidal zonation.
367 Describe the adaptations seen in organisms in the mid-littoral zone of the rocky shore to withstand wave shock?
368 Describe the adaptations seen in mobile organisms in the intertidal zone to withstand desiccation?
369 Describe the adaptations seen in sessile organisms in the intertidal zone to withstand desiccation?
370 Give three mechanisms used by intertidal organisms to reduce heat gain?
371 Give two mechanisms to increase heat loss in organisms in the intertidal zone?
372 When are organisms in the midlittoral zone of the rocky shore more active, high or low tide?
373 How do mussels attach to the rock?
374 What is the predominant macroalgae in the midlittoral zone of temperate rocky shores?
375 How do seaweeds in the midlittoral zone overcome problems of desiccation?
376 How can pH vary rapidly in a tide pool?
377 Are rocky intertidal organisms predominantly marine or terrestrial?
378 Give two differences between rocky shores in tropics and temperate regions?
379 Explain the difference between top-down and bottom-up factors, giving examples of each?
380 What kind of sediment (coarse or fine) would you expect to find on a sandy shore with high wave action?
381 How does particle size affect water retention?
382 How is wave action related to the type of animals found on a sandy shore?
383 True or false: you expect to find more deposit feeders on a sandy shore than a rocky shore?
384 If there are essentially no primary producers on sandy shore, what do animals eat?
385 Why is sandy shore zonation less distinct than rocky shore zonation?
386 Is competition more important in determining distribution on a sandy shore or a rocky shore?
387 What is an estuary?
388 Is the primary productivity of an estuary typically high or low? Why?
389 Contrast the variation in temperature typically found in estuaries compared to surrounding coastal zones.
390 Why are estuaries ideal nursery habitats for many fish and shellfish?
391 What are the four types of estuaries and how do they differ geologically:
392 Explain the difference between a positive and negative estuary?
393 Give an example of a negative estuary?
394 Are negative estuaries typically high or low in productivity and explain why?
395 What are the 4 different salinity mixing patterns seen in estuaries, and explain each with reference to the angle of the halocline?
396 Is the diversity in an estuary typically high or low?
397 Is the biomass in an estuary typically high or low?
398 Define the term osmoconformer, and give an example of one?
399 Define the term osmoregulator, and give an example of one?
400 Explain how marine and freshwater fish osmoregulate.
401 List three adaptations against excessive water & salt exchange between surrounding environment?
402 What does the term euryhaline mean?
403 Define the term stenohaline?
404 What is the main energy base in mud flats?
405 Is there more infauna or epifauna on a mud flat?
406 What is an epiphyte?
407 Do you find salt marshes in the tropics?
408 True or false: Succession in the salt marsh increases the terrestrial environment?
409 Describe 3 ecological roles of salt marshes
410 Describe the food webs found in salt marshes.
411 Would you expect to find mangroves in temperate regions?
412 Which mangrove (black, white or red) is found growing closest to the sea water?
413 What are the prop roots?
414 What are pneumatophores?
415 Why is detritus such an important part of the food web for salt marsh, mangrove and seagrass communities?
416 Which particular human activity is responsible for the destruction of large amounts of mangroves worldwide?
417 How do mangroves tolerate high levels of salinity?
Coral Reef Communities
418 At what latitude would you expect to find coral reefs?
419 What is the key factor contributing to the high levels of productivity found on reefs, in otherwise oligotrophic oceans?
420 Why are coral reefs important? List 4 reasons:
421 Which phylum and class contains hard corals?
422 How does a coral colony grow?
423 What does broadcast spawning mean?
424 What is the name of the symbiotic algae in coral polyps?
425 How do the coral and their symbionts both benefit from the symbiotic relationship?
426 How else do corals obtain food, beside from their symbiotic algae?
427 Describe the differences between fringing reefs, barrier reefs, atolls and patch reefs.
428 How are atolls formed?
429 What is the function of the spur and groove formation in the fore-reef?
430 On which area of the reef would you expect massive corals to dominate?
431 Which area of the reef receives the largest impact of the wave energy?
432 Why are few corals along the west coast of Africa or the northeast coast of South America in the tropics?
433 What is the optimum temperature for coral reef growth?
434 How do slow growing corals compete on the reef?
435 Why did coral cover decline in Jamaica from 52% to 3% in the 1980’s?
436 Give 4 examples of threats to coral reefs?
437 What happens during coral bleaching and why does the coral turn white?
438 Can corals recover from coral bleaching?
439 How might agricultural practices in Africa be affecting Caribbean reefs?
440 Why are herbivores important to coral reef health?
441 How do parrotfish protect themselves on the reef at night?
442 How does increased atmospheric CO2 impact coral reefs, beside by contributing to a warming world?
443 What echinoderm is an important predator of coral in the Indo-Pacific?
444 What invasive fish has had a strong impact on reef fish communities in the Caribbean?
445 What two main physical factors control vertical zonation along a forereef?
Continental Shelves and Neritic Zone
446 List two sources of nutrients on continental shelves?
447 Where is the source of detritus for benthic communities of the continental shelf?
448 Are the conditions more, or less stable on the benthic sea floor of the continental shelf than on intertidal shores?
449 List three causes of patchiness on hard bottom communities on continental shelves
450 What type of sediment would you expect when the current on the sea floor is strong? and when it is weak?
451 What type of organisms are favored in a coarse and in a fine sediment environment?
452 Why do you not find infauna if the currents are strong?
453 On which coast of the USA would you expect to find giant kelp (Macrocystis sp.), and on which would you find Laminaria spp.?
454 What are the keystone predators in kelp ecosystem on the east and on the west coast of the USA?
455 What impact do sea urchins have on kelp communities?
456 Why do deposit and suspension feeders generally not occur in the same areas in the soft bottom communities?
457 How do the activities of burrowing sea cucumbers affect the patchiness of soft bottomed communities?
458 Where is the neritic zone?
459 What is the most abundant type of zooplankton in the neritic zone?
460 Give two reasons why do coastal seas support a larger numbers of higher-level consumers?
461 Why are bigger species of phytoplankton more common in the neritic zone compared to the open ocean?
462 Where are the most productive planktonic ecosystems located?
463 Why can changes in planktonic communities greatly affect populations of benthic organisms?
Open Ocean
464 Explain the two main reasons why are there relatively few large animals in the open ocean?
465 How does the size and abundance of the primary producers differ between the open ocean and coastal seas? Why is this?
466 What are the three vertical zones of the open ocean, based on light levels?
467 What is the difference between plankton and nekton?
468 What is meant by the terms holoplankton and meroplankton? And give an example of each?
469 What is marine snow and why is it important?
470 Why do zooplankton migrate vertically to the surface at night?
471 What is the deep scattering layer formed by?
472 Which oceanic fish maintains its body temperature 8-10oC higher than surroundings? And what are the advantages of this?
473 Do tuna have a swim bladder? If not, how do they maintain buoyancy
474 Which organism that makes up part of the nekton is full of internal and external parasites?
475 How do sea snakes in the open ocean shed their skin?
476 Which group of seabird is considered to be part of the nekton?
477 Give an example of an organism that has spines to increase it frictional drag and reduce its sinking rate?
478 Give 3 methods of increasing buoyancy?
479 How do organisms in the open ocean avoid predation?
480 What are two types of camouflage seen in the open ocean?
481 What is the microbial loop and why is it important in the open ocean?
482 Do some organisms eat bacterioplankton?
483 Name three organisms found in the megaplankton
484 What type of seaweed does not attach to the benthos and is found in the open ocean?
485 In which vertical zones of the open ocean is most of the biomass concentrated? Why?
486 What is plankton distribution patchy?
Life in the Ocean’s Depths
487 What are the physical characteristics of the deep sea?
488 How much does the pressure increase with every 10 m down?
489 Are the conditions more or less stable in the deep sea, compared to shallower ecosystems?
490 Describe adaptations of deep sea organisms to deal with the high pressure.
491 Describe adaptations of deep sea organisms to deal with the cold temperature.
492 Describe an advantage of the cold temperature in the deep sea.
493 What is the disphotic zone?
494 What type of camouflage is seen in the disphotic zone?
495 What is the name of light-producing organs?
496 What are 4 roles of bioluminescence?
497 What type of eyes would you expect on a fish that live at 800m deep? And on one that lives at 3000m deep?
498 Describe the mating strategy of the male deep sea angler fish?
499 Why do deep sea organisms often have large mouths and expandable stomachs?
500 Describe typical deep benthic food chains.
501 What kind of benthic organisms are most abundant in the deep sea?
502 Why is diversity high in the deep sea?
503 Where are hydrothermal vents mostly found?
504 What are the primary producers in vent communities?
505 How do organisms colonize new vents once one hydrothermal vent dies?
506 What is the ecological role of whale falls in the deep ocean?
507 Why are there hydrothermal vents of various color?
508 What colors are most often seen in deep sea animals? Why?
Marine Homeotherms of Polar Seas
509 What is pack ice?
510 What is fast ice?
511 Describe three physical differences between the Arctic and the Antarctic?
512 Is productivity higher in the Arctic or the Antarctic, and why?
513 Describe the two main benefits of polar seas for marine mammals and birds.
514 What is the main advantage of pupping on pack ice rather than in the water?
515 How do newborn polar marine mammals achieve very high growth rates?
516 Why are polar pinnipeds mostly monogamous?
517 Do most pinnipeds show monomorphism or sexual dimorphism?
518 Where and when do polar cetaceans give birth?
519 Which seal has white pups with highly prized fur?
520 Explain the sexual dimorphism seen in hooded seals?
521 Are hooded seal polygynous or monogamous?
522 Do both male and female walruses have tusks?
523 What is the name of the white toothed whale that has a dorsal ridge to break the ice from below, and is preyed on by polar bears?
524 Is the tusk on a narwhal longer in males or females?
525 Do you find narwhals in the Arctic or the Antarctic?
526 Are there penguins in the Arctic? If so, what species? If not, what is their ecological equivalent?
527 What is the organism on which all species in the Antarctic depend either directly or indirectly? What is the phylum and class of this organism?
528 How does the Weddell seal maintain an ice-free breathing hole?
529 How does the reproductive strategy of Adelie penguins and emperor penguins differ?
530 Why does the presence of sea ice increase polar primary productivity
531 In which season is polar productivity highest/
532 Which toothed whales are permanent residents of the Arctic? And of the Southern Ocean?
533 Which seal eats homeothermic prey?
534 What do crabeater seals eat?

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