Biology – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) with Answers – Part 2

Biology Science Multiple Choice Questions Part 2 Eduhyme

All organisms have some type of structure. A structure is literally a “building” up of something from a number of different parts. The  structure of an organism, therefore, is the arrangement or pattern “built” up from its individual body parts. The head and neck help “build” up its entire body pattern.

This article is for people who want to get acquainted with the concepts of basic biology. It can serve as a supplemental text in a classroom, tutored, or home-schooling environment. It should also be useful for career changers who need to refresh their knowledge of the subject.

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This article (Part 2) work contains an abundance of practice quiz, test, and exam questions. The answers are listed in the end of the article.

1. The arthropods are distinguished from other invertebrates by their:

(a) Lack of jointed backbones
(b) Presence of distinctly jointed legs and feet
(c) Ability to reproduce asexually
(d) Tendency to crawl slowly over the ground

2. By referring to the cephalothorax, it is meant that:

(a) The arthropod body is thoroughly segmented
(b) Invertebrates lack brain tissue
(c) All external attachments or appendages are absent
(d) The head and chest segments have been lumped together

3. The lobster can just keep growing bigger and bigger, for as long as it lives! ‘‘So,’’ you may well ask, ‘‘why doesn’t the lobster rip its own skin?’’

(a) The lobster doesn’t have any covering or skin!
(b) There is an intermittent period of molting
(c) The lobster body does rip out of its skin, and then it quickly dies
(d) A rapid healing process takes place

4. The trilobites are most accurately described as:

(a) Primitive, insect-like creatures having two body segments
(b) Arthropods without jointed legs
(c) A long-extinct ancestor of the modern crustaceans
(d) A vanished group of extremely overdeveloped mollusks

5. As a group, the arachnids:

(a) Consist solely of spiders and their webs
(b) Include practically all types of insects
(c) Generally have bodies with eight or more segments
(d) Involve scorpions, ticks, mites, and spiders

6. As a group, insects:

(a) Have bodies literally ‘‘cut into’’ three major segments
(b) Use eight hollow legs to move around
(c) Enjoy extremely long life spans, but infrequent reproduction
(d) Fly with at least 5 pairs of wings

7. Metamorphosis:

(a) Generally involves the shrinkage of an adult back into a larva
(b) Is a mechanism for fluid transport (similar to diffusion)
(c) Always proceeds from one body form to another
(d) Generally occurs without any need for differentiation

8. “Insects (not human beings) are the real monarchs of Planet Earth!” Evidence supporting this statement is the fact that:

(a) Insects have far more ‘‘natural intelligence’’ than people
(b) Insecticides often poison humans, as well as insects
(c) Monarchs are the prettiest butterflies in the world!
(d) There are far more species of insects than any other type of animal

9. Bees can be considered inducers of Biological Order in that:

(a) Pollination resulting from their feeding visits for nectar allows complex patterns of plant life to grow and thrive
(b) They often live in highly aggressive colonies that fiercely attack hive invaders
(c) Flying only during daylight, they do not disturb dark-loving species
(d) Their attractive yellow-and-black body pattern stimulates other organisms to adopt colorful forms of their own

10. Swarms of insects:

(a) Always attack and destroy whatever lies in their path
(b) Only occur in far northerly regions of the planet
(c) May involve highly orderly and efficient patterns of communication and coordination
(d) Show no interactions among their members, whatsoever

11. Every chordate has:

(a) No backbones, but a large post-anal tail
(b) Three or more legs
(c) A hollow nerve cord, but without any muscular tail
(d) A notochord plus gill slits

12. Neither sea squirts nor lancelets are considered ‘‘true’’ vertebrates, since:

(a) They both have closed circulatory systems
(b) Each has a notochord during some time of its life, but never a backbone
(c) Their backs are open and filled with seawater
(d) Biologists are not quite sure of their evolutionary origins

13. Fish-like vertebrates ‘‘without jaws’’:

(a) Class Aves
(b) Class Agnatha
(c) Class Amphibia
(d) Class Placodermi

14. The Placodermi represent:

(a) An important group of living amphibians
(b) A long-extinct class of armored fishes
(c) Essentially the same organisms as do modern lampreys
(d) Close relatives of the monotremes

15. Members of the Class Chondrichthyes basically differ from those of the Class Osteichthyes in that:

(a) Osteichthyes includes salamanders
(b) Chondrichthyes involves the bony fishes
(c) Osteichthyes consists of fish, only
(d) Chondrichthyes is composed of fish with skeletons of cartilage

16. An amnion:

(a) Takes its name from its remarkable resemblance to a “little peanut”
(b) Chiefly consists of a fluid-filled sac encasing the embryos of higher vertebrates
(c) Principally entails a naked embryo surrounded by a hard shell
(d) Represents a stage of reptiles with gills

17. Archaeopteryx is important for biological study because:

(a) This ancient vetebrate may have been a bridge between reptiles and modern birds
(b) It probably did not appear until after all the dinosaurs had gone
(c) There are many marsupials that resemble this creature
(d) It likely gave birth to live young

18. To say that modern birds are homeothermic is basically to claim that they:

(a) Cannot easily control their own internal body temperature
(b) Do not have the capability to adapt to extremely cold environments
(c) Can keep their body temperatures in a relatively stable range
(d) Have lost their appetite for insects

19. The Class Mammalia get their name from what obvious characteristic?

(a) Hairy bodies
(b) Breasts containing milk-secreting glands
(c) Thick craniums holding large brains
(d) Viviparous birthing without eggs

20. The three major groups of mammals:

(a) Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia
(b) Koalas, opossums, and platypuses
(c) Monotremes, marsupials, and placentals

21. In general, differentiation is:

(a) The process whereby the individual germ layers in the embryo eventually become highly specialized
(b) A gradual reduction in complexity of body tissues with increasing age
(c) Any biological means by which organs become more similar to each other
(d) A specific type of diffusion of molecules

22. One major reason for studying the skin and skeleton together within the same chapter:

(a) The skin and bones are both primarily composed of calcium crystals
(b) Both organ systems remain to help identify an animal after it dies
(c) Because all the other organ systems fit together as one
(d) Purely a matter of random guesswork!

23. Unlike plants, the epidermis of humans and most other animals:

(a) Is rich in keratin proteins
(b) Has adequate reserves of chlorophyll
(c) Participates in photosynthesis
(d) Is located deep (internal) to the actual body surface

24. Dead, waterproof ‘‘scales’’ lying upon the skin surface:

(a) Squamae
(b) Strata
(c) Melanocytes
(d) Granules

25. Collagen fibers are very tough, due to their high:

(a) Elasticity
(b) Tension
(c) Rate of excretion
(d) Tensile strength

26. The skin primarily achieves its thermoregulation through the processes of _________ and __________:

(a) Sweat evaporation and vasodilation
(b) Radiation and vasoconstriction
(c) Sweat evaporation and cell loss
(d) Radiation and sensory reception

27. Unlike crabs and other arthropods, human beings have:

(a) An exoskeleton
(b) Jointed appendages
(c) An endoskeleton
(d) Chitin in their skin

28. The main shaft of a long bone:

(a) Diaphysis
(b) Spongy spone
(c) Epiphysis
(d) Marrow

29. Hematopoiesis is a critical function of:

(a) Red bone marrow
(b) Cancelli
(c) Yellow bone marrow
(d) Adipose connective tissue

30. The sharp crystals covering bone collagen fibers are largely composed of:

(a) Calcium phosphate
(b) Magnesium sulfide
(c) Chlorophyll pigment
(d) Melanin

31. The muscular system of humans:

(a) Involves mainly the muscles in the walls of the heart
(b) Is chiefly composed of over 600 individual skeletal muscle organs
(c) Focuses upon about 700 pairs of skeletal muscle tissues
(d) Bears no relationship to bones or tendons

32. The masseter muscle in the jaw is named for the characteristic of:

(a) Muscle shape
(b) Body location
(c) Major body action
(d) Number of muscle heads

33. In bending and straightening of the lower leg, the knee joint serves as a:

(a) Fulcrum
(b) Lever
(c) Resistance
(d) Pulling force

34. When the biceps brachii contracts, it flexes (bends) the lower arm at the elbow. The insertion of the biceps brachii must therefore be at the:

(a) Shoulder
(b) Wrist
(c) Fingers
(d) Elbow

35. Epimysium represents:

(a) A special type of joint
(b) A type of fascia located upon an entire skeletal muscle
(c) Fascia located around a bundle of muscle fibers
(d) Striated muscle fibers

36. The striations of an individual skeletal muscle fiber are chiefly due to:

(a) A stack of light I bands within the myofibrils
(b) Several groups of muscle cell nuclei closely adjacent to one another
(c) A stack of dark A bands within the myofibrils
(d) Complete lack of any significant organelle banding patterns

37. The thin myofilaments primarily consist of the protein _____

(a) Actin
(b) Myosin
(c) Z-line
(d) Cross-bridge substance

38. According to modern theory, a muscle fiber contracts because:

(a) Its thin myofilaments become shorter
(b) The relaxation of the muscle is no longer being opposed
(c) The thick myofilaments lengthen considerably
(d) The thin myofilaments slide inward over the tilted cross-bridges of myosin

39. The neuromuscular junction is alternately called the:

(a) Hypothalamus
(b) Motor end plate
(c) Axon terminals
(d) Vesicles

40. Many sensory nerve fibers ascend and relay to the cerebral cortex, and its:

(a) Postcentral gyrus
(b) Thalamus
(c) Hypothalamus
(d) Primary motor area

41. A synapse represents:

(a) A place where the tips of an axon almost touch a muscle fiber
(b) The major central region of a neuron
(c) The fluid-filled gap where two neurons nearly come together
(d) A traveling wave of chemical excitation

42. ________ are masses of epithelial cells specialized for the function of secretion:

(a) Blood vessels
(b) Hormones
(c) Hormone-binding sites
(d) Glands

43. The mammary (MAH-mair-ee) glands within the female breasts are most accurately classified as:

(a) Synapses
(b) Chemical messengers
(c) Endocrine glands
(d) Exocrine glands

44. The phrase neuroendocrine system implies that:

(a) Some parts of the nervous system have no relationship to body secretions
(b) There are just too darn many body structures and functions to memorize!
(c) Some nervous structures and endocrine gland structures are functionally related
(d) Certain glands have unknown body functions that the brain can’t understand

45. Antidiuretic hormone is actually produced and secreted by the:

(a) Posterior pituitary
(b) Anterior pituitary
(c) Entire pituitary body
(d) Hypothalamus

46. TSH exerts a trophic effect upon the _____ gland:

(a) Testis
(b) Thyroid
(c) Thymus
(d) Tonsil

47. Cortisol generally causes the blood glucose concentration to:

(a) Fall towards the lower limit of its normal range
(b) Stay relatively constant at all times
(c) Soar far beyond the upper limit of its normal range
(d) Rise towards the upper limit of its normal range

48. Triggers ovulation (release of a mature ovum):

(a) GH
(b) ACTH
(c) FSH
(d) LH

49. Epinephrine:

(a) Is exactly the same hormone as noradrenaline
(b) Typically causes a profound ‘‘relaxation response’’ and deep sleep
(c) Closely mimics the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation
(d) Usually decreases the strength and rate of heart contractions

50. A ‘‘Second Messenger’’ is often required in the endocrine system, since:

(a) Most hormones don’t circulate far enough to reach tissue cells
(b) Metabolic action does not respond to hormone concentrations
(c) A lot of hormone molecules are too big to enter their target cells
(d) An error in interpreting the ‘‘First Messenger’’ frequently occurs

51. The circulatory system is literally named for its characteristic of:

(a) Transporting nutrients to the body tissues
(b) Carrying waste products from the body tissues
(c) Traveling through the body in a straight line
(d) Tracing a circle in its journey to and from the heart

52. The smallest branches of the arteries:

(a) Capillaries
(b) Veins
(c) Venules
(d) Arterioles

53. The _____ are the ‘‘entrance rooms’’ at the top of the heart:

(a) Atria
(b) Auricles
(c) Ventricles
(d) Myocardia

54. The left-heart circulation is alternately called the _____ circulation:

(a) Pulmonary
(b) Systemic
(c) Cardiorespiratory
(d) Cerebrovascular

55. The powerful cardiac muscle portion of the heart wall:

(a) Semilunar valves
(b) Endocardium
(c) Myocardium
(d) Pericardium

56. The primary pacemaker of the heart:

(a) Myocardium
(b) Left atrium
(c) Sinoatrial node
(d) Right A-V valve

57. Half-moon shaped flaps that control the entry of blood into the aortic arch and common pulmonary artery:

(a) Atrioventricular valves
(b) Z-lines
(c) Semilunar valves
(d) Crescent muscles

58. The relaxation and filling phase of each heart chamber:

(a) Diastole
(b) Fibrillation
(c) Systole
(d) Bacterial endocarditis

59. Heart murmurs represent:

(a) Turbulent back-flow of blood through leaky valve flaps
(b) Smooth and efficient blood flow through healthy open valves
(c) Extensive arteriosclerosis
(d) A false appearance of atherosclerosis

60. The vessel most frequently used to take a person’s blood pressure:

(a) Superior vena cava
(b) Brachial vein
(c) Common pulmonary artery
(d) Brachial artery

61. Immunity literally translates to mean:

(a) Soreness of the back
(b) A condition of not serving
(c) Open to infection
(d) Guards of protection

62. The word, lymph, derives its name from what specific characteristic?

(a) Dark red color of the fluid
(b) Clear, watery fluid contents
(c) Walking with a ‘‘limp’’ when the lymph circulation is blocked
(d) Milky, murky sludge

63. The lymph is mainly created due to the process of:

(a) Simple diffusion
(b) Phagocytosis
(c) Antigen–antibody reactions
(d) Pressure-driven filtration

64. The ultimate destination of all lymph:

(a) Small masses of lymphatic tissue
(b) Extremely large lymph veins
(c) Blood-containing arteries
(d) Blood-containing veins

65. Act as scouts that first chemically detect and signal the presence of a foreign invader:

(a) Plasma cells
(b) Thymic lymphocytes
(c) Antigen–antibodies
(d) B-lymphocytes

66. A bone marrow lymphocyte:

(a) Readily differentiates into a plasma cell
(b) Is a major producer of antibodies
(c) Usually changes into a T-cell
(d) Basically is identical to an erythrocyte

67. Amoeba-like cells that are active in achieving immunity:

(a) B-lymphocytes
(b) Plasma cells
(c) Erythrocytes
(d) Wandering macrophages

68. An endocrine gland that secretes thymosin:

(a) Spleen
(b) Pancreas
(c) Thymus
(d) Thyroid

69. Both the spleen and red bone marrow are involved in the functions of:

(a) Hematopoiesis, recycling of old erythrocytes, and phagocytosis
(b) Antigen–antibody reactions, only
(c) Digesting important types of foodstuffs
(d) Body movement and support of the vertebral column

70. The type of tonsil also known as the adenoids:

(a) Lingual
(b) Palatine
(c) Zygomatic
(d) Pharyngeal

71. Respiration actually is the process of:

(a) Sucking air into the lungs
(b) Converting glucose into ATP by tissue cells
(c) Blowing air out of the lungs
(d) Gas exchange between two or more body compartments

72. Ventilation is the process of:

(a) Gas exchange between one body compartment and another
(b) Removing acid from the intestine
(c) Blowing out stale air, and sucking in fresh air
(d) Creating new pulmonary tissue via mitosis

73. Gas exchange that occurs between the blood in the systemic capillaries and the fluid within tissue cells:

(a) Hyperventilation
(b) Acid–base balance
(c) External respiration
(d) Internal respiration

74. The actual places of gas exchange within the gills of fish:

(a) Operculum
(b) Lung surface
(c) Bone surfaces within the gill arches
(d) Thin plates on the gill filaments

75. The scientific name for the voice box:

(a) Trachea
(b) Epiglottis
(c) Larynx
(d) Pharynx

76. If the lower respiratory pathway can be compared to an inverted olive tree, then the ‘‘olives’’ on this tree are actually represented by the:

(a) Primary bronchi
(b) Bronchioles
(c) Alveoli
(d) Pulmonary capillaries

77. An increase in the intra-alveolar pressure above the total atmospheric pressure would most likely result in:

(a) Sucking of air into the lungs
(b) Severe hypoventilation
(c) Blowing of air out of the lungs
(d) Paralysis of the diaphragm muscle

78. The critical first event in human inspiration:

(a) Collapse of the alveoli
(b) Relaxation of the diaphragm muscle
(c) Muscular constriction of the windpipe
(d) Contraction of the diaphragm muscle

79. A person with normal lungs usually doesn’t have to make a lot of effort to inspire more air, just after making an expiration. An important reason for this fact is that:

(a) Each person usually has plenty of ATP to spare
(b) The VC is so large that a regular expiration makes no difference in it
(c) TLC ¼ VC þ RV
(d) The residual volume keeps the alveoli partially inflated at all times

80. A key linkage between CO2 and blood acidity is the:

(a) Carrying of oxygen by hemoglobin
(b) Release of nitrogen from tissue cells during their metabolism
(c) Combination of carbon dioxide with H2O in thousands of erythrocytes
(d) Activation of acid-forming enzymes within blood leukocytes

81. For humans, eating grass would not be a good way of obtaining nutrients, because:

(a) Grass contains no nutrient molecules
(b) Blades of grass cannot be digested by any known type of animal
(c) Human stomachs and small intestines lack the key enzymes necessary to break down cellulose
(d) Grass can’t even be chewed by human beings!

82. Ingestion is the exact opposite of what process?

(a) Egestion
(b) Digestion
(c) Absorption
(d) Mastication

83. The movement of nutrients from the interior of the digestive tube into the blood:

(a) Absorption
(b) Secretion
(c) Defecation
(d) Ingestion

84. The chemical digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, owing to the presence of:

(a) Hydrochloric acid
(b) NaHCO3
(c) NaCl
(d) Salivary amylase

85. A thick, soupy mass of partially digested material found in the stomach and small intestine:

(a) Bolus
(b) Cud
(c) Chyme
(d) Feces

86. The first segment of the small intestine:

(a) Jejunum
(b) Vermiform appendix
(c) Duodenum
(d) Cecum

87. Technical term for the gallbladder:

(a) Gallicule
(b) Cholecyst
(c) Cystic duct
(d) Hepatic accessory organ

88. Regulates the emptying of both the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct into the duodenum:

(a) Pyloric sphincter
(b) Microvillus
(c) Hepatopancreatic sphincter
(d) Ileo-cecal sphincter

89. The large intestine begins with the dead-ended ____________:

(a) Sigmoid colon
(b) Rectum
(c) Cecum
(d) Transverse colon

90. A critical structure that allows defecation to be voluntary:

(a) Vermiform appendix
(b) Internal anal sphincter
(c) Descending colon
(d) External anal sphincter

91. The reproductive organs are essentially the same thing as the _____ organs:

(a) Urinary
(b) Genital
(c) Digestive
(d) Musculoskeletal

92. The outermost zone of the kidney:

(a) Renal pelvis
(b) Adrenal medulla
(c) Renal cortex
(d) Glomerulus

93. The major microscopic functional unit of the kidney:

(a) Nephron
(b) Renal capsule
(c) Renal pyramid
(d) Collecting duct

94. A ring of voluntary striated muscle that allows us to consciously control urination:

(a) Cardiac sphincter
(b) Cecum
(c) Glomerular ring structure
(d) Urinary sphincter

95. A tiny yarn-like ball of renal capillaries:

(a) Urinary tubule
(b) Renal pyramid
(c) Glomerulus
(d) Nephron

96. Fragmentation and regeneration is an example of:

(a) Urine formation in certain invertebrate animals
(b) Sexual reproduction in particular starfish and tunicates
(c) Embryo development in most types of fish
(d) A type of asexual reproduction

97. A female frog mounted by a male discharges her eggs into the water.This process is part of:

(a) Internal fertilization
(b) Asexual reproduction
(c) External fertilization
(d) In vitro (test-tube) fertilization

98. An eggshell-resembling structure that contains the seminiferous tubules:

(a) Germinal epithelium
(b) Scrotum
(c) Epididymis
(d) Testis

99. The main mechanism of ejaculation in males:

(a) Gravity-influenced fall of spermatozoa from the penile orifice
(b) A simple diffusion of spermatozoa from a higher to lower concentration
(c) Powerful contracting force of ductus deferens peristalsis pulls sperm out of storage
(d) The epididymis explodes due to over-filling with sperm cells

100. A pair of slender egg ducts that carry ovulated ova towards the uterus:

(a) Fallopian tubes
(b) Peyer’s patches
(c) Ureters
(d) Seminal vesicles

Correct Answers –

  1. B
  2. D
  3. B
  4. C
  5. D
  6. A
  7. C
  8. D
  9. A
  10. C
  11. D
  12. B
  13. B
  14. B
  15. D
  16. B
  17. A
  18. C
  19. B
  20. C
  21. A
  22. B
  23. A
  24. A
  25. D
  26. A
  27. C
  28. A
  29. A
  30. A
  31. B
  32. C
  33. A
  34. D
  35. B
  36. C
  37. A
  38. D
  39. B
  40. B
  41. C
  42. D
  43. D
  44. C
  45. D
  46. B
  47. D
  48. D
  49. C
  50. C
  51. D
  52. D
  53. A
  54. B
  55. C
  56. C
  57. C
  58. A
  59. A
  60. D
  61. B
  62. B
  63. D
  64. D
  65. B
  66. A
  67. D
  68. C
  69. A
  70. D
  71. D
  72. C
  73. D
  74. D
  75. C
  76. C
  77. C
  78. D
  79. D
  80. C
  81. C
  82. A
  83. A
  84. D
  85. C
  86. C
  87. B
  88. C
  89. C
  90. D
  91. B
  92. C
  93. A
  94. D
  95. C
  96. D
  97. C
  98. D
  99. C
  100. A

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